Gothic Art Midterm

46 terms by cmlahaye 

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nave

central aisle

transept

cross shape; to provide room for pilgrims near altar

radiating/apsidal chapels

individual chapels holding individual relics attached to transept and apse

ambulatory

walkway around apse/altar

choir

area where apse joins transept; where people gather to sing the liturgy

crypt

built underneath apse; underground chamber where holiest relics were buried under altar; some were raised above could with raised altar

vault

stone archways; great achievement of romanesque period; wood roof were a problem

barrel vault

simple vaulted roof design; multiple rows of simple arch

transverse arches

transverses span of nave; connect to half columns along piers

voussoir

individual stones used to build an arch or vault; wedge shaped; arch is self supporting (weight concentrated toward exterior walls)

springers

first voissoirs used (lay against columns themselves)

keystone

middle block that holds entire arch together

groin vault/cross vault

intersection at right angles or two barrel vaults of equal size--> allows for light to come in on all sides, transverse separated each groin vault

basilica

church that is an archbishop's church; word comes from greek word meaning ruler or king
- longitudinal
- at least 3 aisles (middle higher than side aisles)

clerestory

second-level windows in middle aisle

baldachin/baldachino/ciborium

canopy above sacred area; square shaped areas supported by 4 columns with some kind of symbolic covering over it

chevet

eastern end of the church

crenelations

notched tower top (like defensive structures)

Saint-Denis Abbey

holds relics of St. Dionysus, originally built 7-8 cent.; rebuilt around 1135-1140

"Old" St. Peter's Basilica

began 326 by Constantine

"New" St. Peter's Basilica

added to old basilica around 15-16 cent.

Beauvais Cathedral

begun in 1225; attempted to be tallest cathedral, but was interrupted by structural complications; only eastern part built (west facade = original)

buttress

projecting/free standing support built into or against the exterior wall of the cathedral, providing stability

Chartres Cathedral

12-13 c. (early gothic)

Saint Sernin

Romanesque cathedral in Toulouse, France (South); begun 1070;

gothic architecture

flourished from the 12 through the 16 centuries; proceeded after Romanesque and preceded Renaissance

Romanesque architecture

unsure of beginning date (anywhere from 6-10 c.) but turned into gothic architecture during 12 c.

masonry webbing

the masonry filler between the ribs of a vault

Durham Cathedral

1115-1133 (early gothic) in England; heavy walls, disguised heaviness of columns with use of decoration; not all parts correspond to each other (some end abruptly, etc.) and Gothic arch. tried to fix this in later Gothic

Benedictine Order

Founded by Saint Benedict of Nursia (c.480-547). He founded twelve communities for monks at Subiaco, about 40 miles east of Rome, before moving to Monte Cassino in the mountains of southern Italy. Principle Romanesque Church was the Abbey at Cluny, France; primary order through middle ages--controlled large scale pilgrimage churches

Cistercian Order

The term derives from Cistercium, the Latin name for the village of Cîteaux, near Dijon in eastern France. It was in this village that a group of Benedictine monks from the monastery of Molesme founded Cîteaux Abbey in 1098 (reaction against Benedictine order by leaving the corruption and wanting to follow the benedictine rule closer)

Cluniac Order

reforms to Benedictine order; carried out by Odo; reformed corruption within church (esp. simony and concubinage)

Rule of Saint Benedict

written by St. Benedict of Nursia--> guide for monastic living

Rule of Cistercians

wanted to follow St. Benedict's rule more closely--> emphasis on physical labor

rite

a religious or other solemn ceremony or act; A body of customary observances characteristic of a church or a part of it.

the roman rite

becomes essential rite for western church during Romanesque and Gothic times; establishes rites for pope to practice in his chapel/vatican and rites in public churches; mass- liturgy of the readings, thanksgiving, sharing the eucharist- forms base of the Roman Rite

Divine Office

separation of monk's day according to prayer & secular rite--public, everyday parish churches

presbytery

area of a church building reserved for the clergy

rood

A stone or wooden screen, which separated the choir of the church where the clergy sits from the nave where the congregation sits

palimpsest

manuscript page that has been scraped off and used again

triforium

Space or passage above the nave arcade, below the clerestory

lancet window

A narrow window with sharp pointed arches

"sculpture in the round"

a free standing sculpture surrounded on all sides (except base) by space

Bernard of Clairvaux

(1090 - 1153; founder and abbot of Clairvaux monastery and the primary builder of the reforming Cistercian order.

Abbaye aux Hommes

use of sexpartite vaults; all parts correspond to each other and their piers (begun 1070, vaulting put in 1120)

Saint Denis

first Gothic church; original building 7-8th c.; refurbished by Abbot Suger 1135-1144

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