Fox Physiology Ch. 2

77 terms by 92andrew 

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60 percent

percentage of water in the human body

atoms

smallest units of chemical elements

protons

subatomic particles with a positive charge; found in the nucleus

neutrons

subatomic particles with no charge; found in the nucleus

electrons

subatomic particles with a negative charge; located in orbitals around the nucleus

atomic number

the number of protons

mass number

the number of protons and neutrons in an atom

valence electrons

the outermost electrons of an atom; readily available to react

isotopes

different forms of an element with different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus

deuterium

an isotope of hydrogen that has one proton and one neutron

tritium

an isotope of hydrogen that has one proton and two neutrons; also radioactive

covalent

type of chemical bond that occurs when electrons are shared; polar and nonpolar

ionic

type of chemical bond that occurs when electrons are completely transferred between atoms; between a metal and nonmetal

hydrogen

type of chemical bond that occurs when H bonds with N,O,F; cause of many physical properties

hydrophilic

water loving; polar molecules; can form hydration spheres when dissolved in water

hydrophobic

water hating; nonpolar molecules

neutral

solution with a [H+] of 10^-7 molar

acid

a molecule that can release protons (H+) into a solution; a "proton donor"

base

a molecule that removes protons (H+) from a solution; a "proton acceptor"

pH

measure of log (1/[H+]); tells how basic or acidic a solution is

buffer

a system of molecules and ions that acts to prevent changes in [H+] and stabilize pH

7.40

average blood pH +/- 0.05

blood plasma buffer

HCO3- + H+ <=> H2CO3

acidosis

condition where blood pH drops below 7.35

alkalosis

condition where blood pH rises above 7.45

organic molecules

chemical compounds made up primarily of carbon and hydrogen

linear

hydrocarbon where molecules are arranged in a straight, or mostly straight, line

cyclic

type of hydrocarbon pictured here

aromatic

type of hydrocarbon pictured here, on this lovely cake

ketones

carbonyl group within the carbon chain (C=O)

alcohols

hydroxyl group within the carbon chain (-OH)

organic acids

carboxylic group within carbon chain (-COOH)

aldehyde

carbonyl group at the end of the carbon chain (O=C-H)

stereoisomers

molecules with same atoms but with different spatial orientations of functional groups

thalidomide

sedative containing mix of D and L-stereoisomers; causes severe birth defects; now used to treat AIDS, leprosy, cachexia

L-amino acids

the stereoisomeric form of amino acids that the body can metabolize

D-sugars

the stereoisomeric form of sugars that the body can metabolize

carbohydrates

organic molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in the ratio: CnH2nOn

monosaccharide

a simple sugar; such as glucose, galactose, or fructose

disaccharide

a double sugar consisting of two monosaccharides linked together via condensation reaction (e.g. sucrose = glucose+fructose)

polysaccharide

many monosaccharides linked together via condensation reactions; starch and glycogen are examples

glycogen

type of polysaccharide that is digestible by humans; can hydrolyze the α-1,4 glycosidic bonds

lipids

molecules insoluble in polar solvents; structures are highly varied

saturated

a type of lipid that does not contain double bonded carbons

unsaturated

a type of lipid that contains at least one double bond carbon

triglyceride

aka triacylglycerol; a molecule formed by the condensation of 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids

ketone bodies

substances, derived from fatty acids, in the liver (ex. β-hydroxybutryic acid and acetoacetic acid)

ketosis

elevated levels of ketone bodies in the blood; may be a result of rapid fat breakdown or diabetes mellitus

ketoacidosis

lowering of the blood pH due to elevated levels of ketone bodies in the blood; severe cases may lead to coma and death

phospholipids

amphipathic molecules made up of a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail; compose cell membranes

micelles

aggregations of water and lipid molecules

lecithin

a specific type of phospholipid composing cell membranes

surfactant

molecules that alter the surface tension of liquids; keep the lungs inflated

steroids

lipid molecules made up of three 6-C rings and one 5-C ring

cholesterol

steroid involved in cell membranes; precursor for sex hormones and corticosteroids

sex steroids

lipids including estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone

corticosteroids

lipids including hydrocortisone, aldosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone

prostaglandins

fatty acids with a cyclic hydrocarbon; regulate blood vessel diameter, ovulation, uterine contraction, inflammation, and blood clotting

proteins

molecules composed of long chains of amino acids bonded together via peptide bonds

primary structure

first level of structure of a protein that describes the sequence of amino acids

secondary structure

next level of structure of a protein formed by weak interactions between peptides (hydrogen bonds, van der waals, disulfide, ionic); forms either α-helix or β-pleated sheet

tertiary structure

next level of structure of a protein formed by bending and folding into a complex three dimensional shape

quaternary structure

final level of structure (not all proteins) formed by joining of several polypeptide chains (e.g. hemoglobin and insulin)

glycoproteins

protein conjugated with carbohydrates

lipoproteins

proteins conjugated with lipids

nucleotides

subunits of nucleic acids; bonded via dehydration synthesis

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid; serves as basis for genetic code; involves guanine, thymine, cytosine, and adenine

complementary base pairing

T = A and G = C

double helix

three dimensional shape of a DNA molecule

RNA

ribonucleic acid; another nucleic acid used in the cell for protein synthesis and interpretation of the genetic code

uracil

base found only in RNA

capillary action

the physical property that allows for measurement of hematocrit

leukemia

the type of cancer that can be caused by exposure to benzene

rum

alcoholic beverage that is high in aldehydes

nucleoside

a precursor that reacts with phosphate to produce nucleotides

genomics

the order of base pairs in a genome

proteomics

the branch of genetics that studies the full set of proteins encoded by a genome

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