Joints

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fibrous joints

bones joined by connective tissue
no joint cavity

cartilaginous joints

bones joined by cartilage
no joint cavity

synovial joints

joint cavity separates articulating bones

synarthrotic joints

immovable

amphiarthrotic joints

slight movement allowed

diarthrotic joints

freely moveable

sutures

fibrous joint
articulations between the bones of the cranium

syndesmoses

fibrous joint
bones connected by a cord or sheet of dense connective tissue

ligament

founds in syndesmoses (types of fibrous joints)
cords of dense connective tissue

interosseous membrane

found in syndesmoses (types of fibrous joints)
sheets of dense connective tissue

gomphoses

teeth to bony socket

synchondroses

cartilaginous joints
bones connected by hyaline cartilage
ex.) sternocostal joint of rib 1

symphyses

cartilaginous joints
bones connected by fibrocartilage
ex.) intervetebral joints

articular cartilage

found in synovial joints
consists of hyaline cartilage covering of bone

joint cavity

found in synovial joints
filled with synovial fluid
allows or easy and smooth movement

articular capsule

found in synovial joints
forms outer walls of joint cavities

reinforcing ligaments

found in synovial joints
provide support to joints

nonaxial movement

movement of synovial joint
slipping movement only

uniaxial movement

movement of synovial joint
movement in only one plane
ex.) elbow

biaxial movement

movement of synovial joint
movement in two planes
ex.) knuckle

multiaxial movement

movement of synovial joint
movement in three planes
ex.) shoulder

gliding movements

found in synovial joints
consist of flat surfaces sliding over each other
ex.) carpals

angular movements

found in synovial joints
lead to a change in the angle between two bones
ex.) elbow

flexion

an angular synovial movement
decreases the angle between two bones

extension

an angular synovial movement
increases the angle between two bones

abduction

an angular synovial movement
moves away from the body's midline

adduction

an angular synovial movement
moves toward the body's midline

circumduction

an angular synovial movement
movement is cone-shaped

rotation

consists of of movement around a long axis
ex.) atlas and axis

supination

a special synovial movement
consists of rotation of radius around the ulna
palm up

pronation

a special synovial movement
consists of rotation of radius around the ulna
palm down

dorsiflexion

a special synovial movement
toes up

plantar flexion

a special synovial movement
toes down

inversion

a special synovial movement
foots turns medially

eversion

a special synovial movement
foot turns laterally

protraction

a special synovial movement
consists of movement into anterior space
ex.) underbite

retraction

a special synovial movement
consists of movement into posterior space
ex.) overbite

elevation

a special synovial movement
upward movements

depression

a special synovial movement
downward movements

opposition

a special synovial movement
the thumb

plane joint

a type of synovial joint
consist of two flat surfaces
motion is nonaxial, gliding
ex.) intercarpal joints

hinge joint

a type of synovial joint
uniaxial movement, flexion and extension
ex.) elbow, knee, finger joints

pivot joints

a type of synovial joint
round part fits into a ring
joint restricts movement to rotation only
uniaxial, rotational
ex.) radioulnar joint

condyloid joints

a type of synovial joint
concave and convex oval surfaces that fit together
motion is biaxial, all angular motions
ex.) knuckle joints

saddle joints

a type of synovial joint
consists of two saddle shaped surfaces
motion is biaxial, all angular motions
ex.) carpometacarpal 1

ball-and-socket joints

a type of synovial joint
round end fits into concave surface
motion is multiaxial, universal movement
should and hip joints

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