Human Physiology

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What is the "key" of the circulatory system?

Transport

Circulatory system transports 2 & CO2), Nutrients, Hormones and Waste Substanceswhat?

Respiratory gases (O2 & CO2), Nutrients, Hormones and Waste Substances

In the circulatory system what is an example of 2 organs that gets rid of waste?

Lungs and Kidneys

The Circulatory system has Regulation of what?

Body temperature, Blood Clotting, Immune Function

What are the two components of the Circulatory System?

Cardiovascular system and Lymphatic system

Cardiovascular controls what three?

heart, blood vessels, blood

Lymphatic system does what?

Picks up excess fluid filtered out in capillary beds and returns it to veins

What happens in the Lymphatic system if there is an infection or is not working?

Swelling

3 Things the Lymphatic system controls

Lymph nodes, lymph vessels, and lymph

Lymph has or controls what fluid?

Interstitial fluid

Total volume of blood is?

5L

What are the two components of blood?

Plasma and Formed Elements

Name two facts about plasma?

Straw colored fluid consisting of H20 and dissolved solutes and Serum

What is Serum?

Is the Fluid left when blood clots

Name 3 things that are "Formed" Elements

Red Blood Cells, White Blood Cells, Platelets

What is 92% of Plasma composition?

Water

What is 60% of Plasma Proteins?

Albumin

What is the major contributors to osmotic pressure of plasma; transports lipids, steroid hormones?

Albumin

In Plasma Proteins what does Globulin do?

Transport ions, hormones lipids; immune function

What represents 99.9% of The Formed Elements?

Red Blood Cells, they represent formed elements

Red Blood Cells are also called?

Erythrocytes

Red Blood Cells contain?

Hemoglobin

Red Blood Cells carry?

Oxygen

Where are Red Blood Cells produced?

Bone Marrow

Red Blood Cells live for how many days?

120 days

What cells do red blood Cells lack?

Lack Nuclei & Mitochondria

White blood cells are also called?

Leukocytes

What do White Blood cells do when there is an infection?

An Increase of White Blood Cells

What 3 cell items are in a White Blood Cell?

Nucleus, mitochondria and amoeboid ability

What are the two types of White Blood Cells?

Granular leukocytes. (Include Eosinophils, Basophils, and Neutrophils

What represents 60-65% of White blood cells we have?

Neutrophils

Agranular Leukocytes (that are white blood cells) do what?

Produce antibodies

Aranular Leukocytes include what two components?

Lymphocytes and Monocytes

What represents 30-35% of white blood cells?

Lymphocytes

Platelets are also called?

Thrombocytes

Platelets (Thrombocytes) are responsible for what?

Responsible for Blood Clotting

How do Platelets(Thrombocytes) help clotting?

Release serotonin to vasoconstrict & reduce blood flow to clot area

What is the "smallest" of the Formed Elements?

Platelets (Thrombocytes)

How long do Platelets, (Thrombocytes) last? (Days)

5-9 Days

What is the count of Platelets (Thrombocytes)?

130,000.00 - 400,000.00/cmm

Hematopoiesis is a formation of what?

Is a formation of blood cells from stem cells in marrow (Myeloid tissue) & Lymphoid tissue

Erythropoiesis is a formation of?

Red Blood Cells Stimulated by Erythropoietin from kidney

Leukopoiesis is a formation of?

White Blood cells, stimulated by variety of cytokines

White Blood Cells Increase with what?

A infection, Army of the body

Erythropoiesis produces how many Red Blood Cells per second?

2.5 million per second

What is the name of the cells that removes old Red Blood Cells?

Phagocytic Cells

Old Red Blood Cells removed from the blood by Phagocytic cells happen in these 3 places?

Liver, Spleen, Bone Marrow

In Erythropoiesis what is recycled back into hemoglobin production?

Iron

When someone has a yellow look this is called?

Jaundice, Excessive blillie-rubin

Does Jaundice go away in babies?

Yes

Does Jauncice go away in adults?

No, they need a liver transplant

Blood Types determine by the presence or absence of specific proteins on the surface of?

Red Blood Cells (Antigens or Aggultinogens)

This occurs when Antigens meet Antibodies

Cross-Reaction (Agglutination)

Blood Type A contains?

Contains Antigen A and Antibodies against (B)

Blood Type B contains?

Contains Antigen B and Antibodies against (A)

Blood Type AB contains?

Antigen A and Antigen B, No Antibodies

Blood Type O contains?

No antigens, antibodies against (A) and (B)

What is Myeloid Tissue?

Red Bone Marrow of long bones. Erythropoiesis and leukpoisis occur here

Type O is what kind of donor?

Universal Donor, because lacks A & B aintigens

Type AB is what kind of donor?

Universal Recipient, because doesn't make anti-A or anti-B antibodies

If Blood types don't match, recipient's antibodies "?" donor's Red Blood Cells

Agglutinate

Lymphocytes produced in bone marrow travel "?" , role in specific immunity

Lymphoid Tissue

In The Rh factor, Rh positive red blood cells DO or DO NOT contain the Rh Antigen?

DO Contain

In The Rh factor, Rh Negative red blood cells DO or DO NOT contain the Rh antigen?

DO NOT!

True or False? Rh Factors and Pregnancy. Can cause problems when Rh+ mother has Rh- baby?

False, can cause problems when Rh- mother has Rh+ baby

How does Erythroblastosis fetalis occur?

Antibodies cross placenta causing Hemolysis of Fetal Red Blood Cells

What do you give to babies to stop them from having Rh+ babies?

The drug Rogan

Define Hemostasis

Is cessation or Stopping of bleeding

Vasoconstriction does what when a vessel is injured?

Restricts blood flow to area

In Hemostasis what forms?

Platelet plug forms; to help stop bleeding

What is the most important role of Platelets?

Blood Clotting

What are the 2 things that Platelets do?

Formation of Platelet Plug and Platelet Aggregation

True or False? Damage to the Endothelium allows platelets to bind to exposed collagen?

True

Platelets stick to collagen & release what?

Adp, Serotonin and Thromboxane A2

Platelet Relase "?"

Platelet Release Reaction

Serotonin and Thromboxane A2 do what to a wound?

Stimulate vasoconstriction, reducing blood flow to a wound

ADP & Thromboxane A2 cause other platelets to do what for a wound?

ADP & Thromboxane A2 cause other platelets to become sticky and attach and undergo platelet release reaction. This continues until platelet plug is formed

What is the role of Fibrin?

Platelet plug becomes infilitrated by meshwork of Fibrin which is formed of the plasma protein Fibrogen. (Thrombin converts fibrinogen to fibrin)

Once a clot is formed, what does the clot contain? (3 things)

Platelets, Fibrin, Red Blood Cells

Platlet plug undergoes "?" to form more compact plug

Plug Contraction

Define Anticoagulants?

Drugs that can prevent the formation of Blood Clot

Clotting can be prevented by adding what drugs? (4 drugs)

Sodium Citrate, EDTA, Heparin and Coumarin

Coumarin blocks clotting by inhibiting activation of "?"

Vit K

Vit K is required for?

Blood Clotting

The Cardiovascular System is made up of 2 things

The Heart and The Blood Vessels

The heart is the size of a?

Fist

What does the heart work as?

A pump

The heart is made up of what muscle?

Myocardium

The outside of the heart is covered by the?

Epicardium

The inside of the heart is lined by the?

Endocardium

The Heart is surrounded by the?

Pericardium

The Pericardium is......?

a sac that surrounds the Heart

T/F The Pericardium contains a thick film or fluids for lubrication

False, The Pericardium contains a THIN film of fluids for lubrication

The Pericardium is made up of what TWO layers?

The Visceral; close to the heart. The Parietal; close to the chest wall

Define Pericardial Effusion

Collection of fluids in the Pericardial sac

The Visceral layer of the Pericardium is close to the?

Heart

The Parietal layer of the Pericardium is close to the?

Chest Wall

The heart is divided by a "?" into two sides or halves (Right and Left).

Septum

What is the side of the heart that contains blood POOR in Oxygen(Deoxygenated Blood)?

The Right Side of the heart

This side of the heart contains blood RICH in Oxygen(Oxygenated Blood)?

The Left Side of the heart

Each side of the heart is divided into two chambers, what are they?

Atrium and Ventricle

Upper chamber of the heart is called?

Atrium

Lower chamber of the heart is called?

Ventricle

The myocardium of the Atria is seperated from the ventricular myocardium by?

Fibrous Skeleton

T/F The Atria contracts before the Ventricles?

True, The Atria contracts before the Ventricles

The heart contains 4 valves which allow blood to flow in one direction only, what are the 4?

Tricuspid, Mitral, Pulmonary, Aortic

Tricuspid is located?

Between the Right Atrium and the Right Ventricle

Mitral is located?

Between the Left Atrium and the Left Ventricle

Pulmonary is located?

Between the Right Ventricle and the Pulmonary Artery

Aortic is located?

Between the Left ventricle and the Aorta

What are the 3 types of Blood Vessels?

Arteries, Veins, Capillaries

Innermost layer of all bood vessels is the "?"

Endothelium

Endothelium is what kind of Epithelium tissue?

Simple Squamous Epithelium(one layer of simple squamous.)

What are the 3 layers of Arteries and veins called?

Tunica Externa (Connective tissue), Tunica, Media,(is mostly smooth muscle) Tunica Interna ( Endothelium and elastin0

Arteries have thick walls or thin walls?

Thick Walls

Arteries carry blood to or away from the heart?

Away from the heart

What is the only Artery that does not carry blood rich in oxygen?

Pulmonary Artery

Pressure inside of arteries is high or low?

relatively high

Small Arteries are called?

Arterioles

Arterioles maintain what?

Blood Pressure

Large Arteries are Elastic or Non Elastic?

Elastic

Large Arteries contain lots of?

Elastin

What does Elastin help maintain?

Helps maintain smooth blood flow during diastole

What kind of arteries provide most resistance in the circulatory system?

Small Arteries and Arterioles

Veins have thick or thin walls?

Thin walls

Veins carry blood towards the heart or away from the heart?

towards the heart

Veins carry blood poor or rich in oxygen?

Poor in oxygen

Veins carry blood poor in Oxygen, except?

The Pulmonary Veins

Pressure inside the veins is high or low?

Low

Small veins are called?

venules

Blood is moved toward heart by contraction of surrounding skeletal muscles by?

skeletal muscle pump(pressure drops in chest during breathing)

Venous valves ensure that what happens?

Ensures that blood moves only toward the heart

What do Capillaries connect between?

Arteries and Veins

Blood gives its "?" to body cells and takes away "?" and takes away "?"

Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide

In "?", endothelial cells are tightly joined together?

Continious Capillaries

Continuous Capillaries are present where?

Muscle, Lungs and adipose tissue

This capillary has a wide intercellular pore

Fenestrated Cappilaries

Fenestrated Capillaries is present where?

Kidneys, endocrine glands, intestines

These capillaries have large gaps in endothelium

Discontinuous Capillaries (Present in liver, spleen and bone marrow

What are the two different circulations of blood inside the body?

The pulmonary circulation and The Systemic Circulation

In the Pulmonary Circulation blood circulates between the "?" and the "?".

Heart and Lungs

In the Pulmonary Circulation "?" gets rid of Carbon Dioxide and becomes loaded with "?".

Blood and Oxygen

The "?" is the only artery that carries Deoxygenated blood

The Pulmonary Artery

The "?" are the only veins that carry Oxygenated Blood.

The Pulmonary Veins

In Systemic Circulation "?" circulates between the Heart and Different organs of the body.

Blood

Blood flows in what order?

Heart, Aorta, Arteries, Arterioles, Capillaries, Venules, Veins(upper superior, lower inferior), Heart. (HAAACVVH)

In the Pulmonary &Systemic Circulations deoxygenated blood returns to the Right atrium via the 2 main Veins, what are they?

Superior and Inferior Vena Cava

The Right Ventricle contracts to pump Blood into the "?" which divides into RIght and Left Pulmonary Arteries

Pulmonary Trunk

In the Lungs, Exchange of gases takes place between "?" in capillaries and air in the Lung Alveoli. Blood becomes Oxygenated

Blood

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