describes a lifestyle characterized by abstinence from various sorts of worldly pleasures often with the aim of pursuing religious and spiritual goals.
In printmaking, a relief printing technique in which the work is printed from a design cut into the side of a piece of wood.
poetry written in unrhymed iambic pentameter.
a hymn sung by a Christian congregation. In certain modern usage, this term may also include classical settings of such hymns and works of a similar character.
a German word literally meaning "song", usually used to describe romantic songs setting German poems of reasonably high literary aspirations
Holy Communion, the Sacrament of the Altar, the Blessed Sacrament, the Lord's Supper, and other names, is a Christian sacrament or ordinance.
diptych and triptych
any object with two or three flat plates attached at a hinge.
a form of poetry that originated in Europe, mainly Italy: the Sicilian poet Giacomo da Lentini is credited with its invention. They commonly contain 14 lines.
he Calvinistic doctrine of predestination is a doctrine of Calvinism which deals with the question of the control God exercises over the world.
any lyric-driven French song, usually polyphonic and secular.
German monk, priest, professor of theology and iconic figure of the Protestant Reformation. He strongly disputed the claim that freedom from God's punishment for sin could be purchased with money.
The Isenheim Altarpiece
altarpiece painted by the German artist Matthias Grünewald
a Dutch Renaissance humanist, Catholic priest, social critic, teacher, and theologian.
centers on practices within the Catholic Church regarding baptism and absolution. written by Martin Luther, 1517 and is widely regarded as the primary catalyst for the Protestant Reformation. The disputation protests against clerical abuses, especially the sale of indulgences.
Battle of Alexander and Darius on the Issus
oil painting by the German artist Albrecht Altdorfer (c. 1480-1538), a pioneer of landscape art.
In Praise of Folly
sometimes translated as In Praise of More, Dutch title: Lof der Zotheid) is an essay written in 1509 by Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam and first printed in 1511.
split within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther, John Calvin and other early Protestants. The efforts of the self-described "reformers", who objected to ("protested") the doctrines, rituals and ecclesiastical structure of the Roman Catholic Church, led to the creation of new national Protestant churches.
The Garden of Earthly Delights
a triptych painted by the Early Netherlandish master Hieronymus Bosch.
a Renaissance astronomer and the first person to formulate a comprehensive heliocentric cosmology which displaced the Earth from the center of the universe.
Pieter Bruegel the Elder
a Flemish Renaissance painter and printmaker known for his landscapes and peasant scenes. Painted "The Fall of Icarus"
a leader of the Reformation in Switzerland. he noted corruption in the ecclesiastical hierarchy, promoted clerical marriage, and attacked the use of images in places of worship.
Jan van Eyck
a Flemish painter active in Bruges and is generally considered one of the most significant Northern European painters of the 15th century. Painted "The Arnolfini Marriage"
one of the most influential writers of the French Renaissance, known for popularizing the essay as a literary genre and is popularly thought of as the father of Modern Skepticism.
an influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation. He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology
an English poet best known for The Faerie Queene, an epic poem and fantastical allegory celebrating the Tudor dynasty and Elizabeth I.
a French composer of the Renaissance. He was one of the most famous composers of popular chansons of the entire Renaissance
a German painter, printmaker, engraver, mathematician, and theorist from Nuremberg. His prints established his reputation across Europe when he was still in his twenties, and he has been conventionally regarded as the greatest artist of the Northern Renaissance ever since.
The Fairy Queen
an incomplete English epic poem by Edmund Spenser. The first half was published in 1590, and a second installment was published in 1596.
refers to the period between 1485 and 1603, specifically in relation to the history of England. This coincides with the rule of the Tudor dynasty in England whose first monarch was Henry VII (1457 - 1509). The term can be used more broadly to include Elizabeth I's reign (1558 - 1603), although this is often treated separately as the Elizabethan era.
a German Renaissance painter of religious works, who ignored Renaissance classicism to continue the expressive and intense style of late medieval Central European art into the 16th century.
a German painter, engraver and architect of the Renaissance working in Regensburg. Painted Battle of "Alexander and Darius on the Issus."
a German artist and printmaker who worked in a Northern Renaissance style. He is best known as one of the greatest portraitists of the 16th century. Painted "Henry VIII in Wedding Dress."
a Dutch painter. His work is known for its use of fantastic imagery to illustrate moral and religious concepts and narratives. Painted "The Garden of Earthly Delights"
Josquin des Pres
a Franco-Flemish composer of the Renaissance. Wrote "Regret over the death of Johannes Ockeghem"
Sometimes called The Virgin Queen, Gloriana, or Good Queen Bess, the fifth and last monarch of the Tudor dynasty.
a theatre in London associated with William Shakespeare. It was built in 1599 by Shakespeare's playing company, the Lord Chamberlain's Men, and was destroyed by fire on 29 June 1613.
a Franco-Flemish composer of the early Renaissance. As the central figure in the Burgundian School, he was the most famous and influential composer in Europe in the mid-15th century.
an English dramatist, poet and translator of the Elizabethan era. As the foremost Elizabethan tragedian, next to William Shakespeare, he is known for his blank verse, his overreaching protagonists, and his mysterious death.
Lucas Cranach the Elder
a German Renaissance painter and printmaker in woodcut and engraving. He was court painter to the Electors of Saxony for most of his career, and is known for his portraits, both of German princes and those of the leaders of the Protestant Reformation, whose cause he embraced with enthusiasm, becoming a close friend of Martin Luther.
Lucas Cranach the Younger
a German Renaissance artist, known for his woodcuts and paintings.
an English composer of the Renaissance. He wrote in many of the forms current in England at the time, including various types of sacred and secular polyphony, keyboard (the so-called Virginalist school) and consort music.