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enzyme

biological catalysts that increase the rate of chemical reactions; most are proteins

ribozymes

molecules of RNA that demonstrate enzymatic activity

catalyst

a chemical that increases the rate of a chemical reaction, is not itself changed during the reaction, and it does not change the nature of the reaction

activation energy

the amount of energy required for a reaction to proceed

substrates

the molecules that fit into the active sites of certain enzymes

lock and key model

model of enzymatic activity where substrate A & B fit perfectly into the enzyme, are affected, and leave the active sites (leaving the enzyme unchanged)

induced fit model

model of enzymatic activity where substrate A & B fit into the active sites, induce a conformational change in the enzyme, and leave the active sites changed

Alkaline Phosphatase

diseases resulting in high blood plasma concentration of this enzyme: obstructive jaundice (gallbladder stones), Paget's disease, and carcinoma of bone

Acid Phosphatase

diseases resulting in high blood plasma concentration of this enzyme: benign hypertrophy of prostate, cancer of prostate

Amylase

diseases resulting in high blood plasma concentration of this enzyme: pancreatitis, perforated peptic ulcer

Aldolase

diseases resulting in high blood plasma concentration of this enzyme: muscular dystrophy

Creatine kinase

diseases resulting in high blood plasma concentration of this enzyme: muscular dystrophy, myocardial infarction

Lactate dehydrogenase

diseases resulting in high blood plasma concentration of this enzyme: myocardial infarction, liver disease, renal disease, pernicious anemia

Transaminases

diseases resulting in high blood plasma concentration of this enzyme: myocardial infarction, hepatitis, muscular dystrophy

aspartate

the amino acid from which the enzyme AST is derived

alanine

the amino acid from which the enzyme ALT is derived

isoenzymes

enzymes with same functions but slightly different "models" in different organs

kidneys

major organs that can fail with an extremely elevated creatine-phosphokinase level (CK)

MM

form of creatine-phosphokinase released from damage to skeletal muscle

BB

form of creatine-phosphokinase released from damage to the brain

MB

form of creatine-phosphokinase released from damage/disease to the heart

factors affecting enzyme rate

temperature and pH of a solution, concentration of cofactors and coenzymes, concentration of enzyme and substrate, stimulatory and inhibitory effects of products

pH optimum

specific for each enzyme; an enzyme will work best at body temperature and this

cofactors

metal ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, etc) that induce a conformational change in an enzyme that allows substrates to bind

coenzymes

organic molecules, from water-soluble vitamins, needed for functions of some enzymes

enzyme activation

phosphorylation is an example of this; required for many enzymes to properly function; prompted by the environment and turnover of enzyme proteins

law of mass action

reversible reactions will be driven from higher to lower concentration

saturation

when the relationship between substrate concentration and reaction rate reaches a plateau of maximum velocity

metabolic pathway

process of moving from initial substrate to intermediates to final products

end product inhibition

a form of negative feedback where products inhibit the production of more product

allosteric inhibition

specific mechanism of end product inhibition where a product inhibits a specific enzymatic step by binding to the enzyme and conformationally changing it

inborn errors

the idea that genetic mutations prevent translation of an enzyme and diseases may arise (ex. hypercholesterolemia)

phenylketonuria

inborn error with an increase in phenylpyruvic acid resulting in mental retardation, epilepsy (aka PKU)

albinism

inborn error with a lack of melanin resulting in a susceptibility to skin cancer

maple syrup disease

inborn error with an increase in leucine, isoleucine, and valine resulting in the degeneration of the brain, early death

homocystinuria

inborn error with accumulation of homocystine resulting in mental retardation, eye problems

lactose intolerance

inborn error where lactose is not utilized resulting in diarrhea

glucose 6 phosphate deficiency

inborn error with accumulation of glycogen in the liver resulting in liver enlargement, hypoglycemia (aka Gierke's disease)

glycogen phosphorylase

inborn error with accumulation of glycogen in muscles resulting in muscle fatigue and pain

Gaucher's disease

inborn error with lipid accumulation resulting in liver/spleen enlargement, brain degeneration

Tay-Sachs disease

inborn error with lipid accumulation resulting in brain degeneration, death by age five

hypercholesterolemia

inborn error with high blood cholesterol resulting in atherosclerosis of coronary and large arteries

bioenergetics

the flow of energy in living systems

first law of thermodynamics

energy cannot be created or destroyed, but can be transferred from one form to another

second law of thermodynamics

the amount of entropy/disorder increases during every energy transformation

endergonic

reactions requiring an input of energy (result in a rise of free energy)

exergonic

reactions releasing an output of energy (result in less free energy)

reduction

gain of electrons (or of H in biosystems)

oxidation

loss of electrons (or of H in biosystems)

reducing agent

species that induces reductions, and is therefore itself oxidized

oxidizing agent

species that induces oxidation, and is therefore itself reduced

niacin

coenzyme NAD is derived from this B vitamin

riboflavin

coenzyme FAD is derived from this B vitamin

pernicious anemia

extremely low levels of vitamin B12; can resemble leukemia symptomatically

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