Western area of land about 1,000 square miles where 4 new states (Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma-Indian Territory) were carved out by 1890
Spanish animal brought to US that dramatically changed lives of Native Americans, they were able to become more nomadic and warlike
cholera, typhoid, smallpox
three "white man" diseases that killed off the native American population
Fort Laramie, Fort Atkinson
Treaties were made with the "chiefs" of Plains Indians in 1851 and 1853 at these two locations. Established boundaries for the territory of each tribe and attempted to split the Indians into two northern and southern "colonies."
Major northern Plains Indian nation that fought and eventually lost a bitter war against the US army
Great Sioux Reservation
Reservation in the DAKOTA TERRITORY. Granted by the government after the massacre of Fetterman's troops on the Bozeman Trail in Wyoming.
area covering most of present-day OKLAHOMA to which most American Indians in the SE were forced to move in the 1830s
the system that allotted land with designated boundaries to Native American tribes in the west. The U.S. government encouraged and sometimes violently coerced Native Americans to stay on these "human zoos" at all times.
One of the four 'crack black units' that helped in the western battles against the Indians.
Sherman, Sheridan, Custer
three American generals (all Civil war veterans) that marched through the west fighting Indians, however many times the "hostiles" were better prepared than the white men
Term used to describe the several conflicts with Indians during the 1860s and 1870s as Americans began to encroach upon the Indian owned land instead of just passing through it on their way west.
Sand Creek, Colorado
Site of Indian massacre by militia forces in 1864, 400 Indians including men, women, and children killed
At Sand Creek, Colorado in 1864, his militia massacred 400 Indians who apparently posed no threat.
one of few Indian victories, 1866 a Sioux war party attempting to block construction of the BOZEMAN TRAIL to the Montana goldfields ambushed Captain William J. Fetterman's command of eight-one soldiers and civilians in Wyoming's Bighorn Mountains; The Indians left not a single survivor and grotesquely mutilated the corpses
A mountain range in South Dakota and Wyoming, this area was promised to the Sioux in the Dakota territory but this promise was broken when gold was discovered there.
American Indian medicine man, chief, and political leader of his tribe at the time of the Custer massacre during the Sioux War (Battle of Little Bighorn )
"Boy general" or "white chief with yellow hair" led the seventh cavalry and attacked a superior force of 2,500Indians at Little Bighorn River, completely crushed
the division under custer which set out to crush indians and return them to the reservation; got destroyed at Battle of Little Bighorn
Little Bighorn River
location Sitting Bull and Sioux Indians attacked Custard's 7th cavalry for taking gold from sacred land
A chief of the Sioux who resisted the invasion of the Black Hills and joined Sitting Bull in the defeat of General Custer at Little Bighorn
Nez Perce Indians
Native Americans of Idaho region, gold discovered on their reservation, Chief Joseph forced to surrender his people, put into Kansas reservation
Leader of Nez Perce. Fled with his tribe to Canada (Continental Divide) instead of reservations. However, US troops came and fought and brought them back down to reservations.
led by Geronimo; persued into Mexico by federal troops; scattered survivors ultimately became successful farmers in Oklahoma
Apache chieftain who raided the white settlers in the Southwest as resistance to being confined to a reservation (1829-1909)
"hunchback cows" these animals had dominated the Great Plains before white Americans moved in, and Native Americans had long lived off them while sustaining their population. However, whites killed them off
William "Buffalo Bill" Cody
Rugged frontiersman and sharpshooter who created "Buffalo Bill's Wild West" traveling show, one of the touring extravaganzas that enjoyed incredible popularity during the last quarter of the nineteenth century. killed over 4000 animals in 18 months while employed by the kansas pacific
this industry can be blamed for the sudden explosion of buffalo killing in the Great Plains
became well know for his paintings, drawing, and bronze sculptures of cowboys and Indians
Helen Hunt Jackson
an author who wrote A Century of Dishonor which chronicled the government's actions against the Indians. She also wrote ROMONA, which was a love story about Indians. Her writing helped inspire sympathy towards the Indians.
A Century of Dishonor
Written by Helen Hunt Jackson in 1881 to expose the atrocities the United States committed against Native Americans in the 19th century
An annual Plains Indian culture ceremony given at midsummer when bands and tribes congregated at a predetermined location. government tried to outlaw this
Ghost Dance Cult
Indian cult formed in reaction to the banning of the Sun Dance ritual. When it spread to the Dakota Sioux, it was stopped in 1890 at the Battle of Wounded Knee. The tribes believed that the shirts and spirits of their ancestors would protect them and save their land.
Battle of Wounded Knee
The final act of violence against the Dakota Sioux nation in which 300 some Indians (part of the Ghost Dance Cult) were brought together and murdered when someone refused to give up their weapon.
Dawes Severalty Act
dissolved the legal entities of all tribes, if the indians behaved the way whites wanted, they could receive full u.s. citizenship in 25 years. but advanced the decay of Indian culture
Carlisle Indian School
Pennsylvania school for Indians funded by the government; children were separated from their tribe and were taught English and white values/customs. Motto of founder: "Kill the Indian and save the man."
In the 1890s the government expanded its network of Indian boarding school sand sent these to the reservations to teach Native American women the art of sewing and to preach the virtues of chastity and hygiene.
Indian Reorganization Act
the "Indian New Deal", 1934 - Restored tribal ownership of lands, recognized tribal constitutions and government, and provided loans for economic development.
aka Pike's Peakers, gold hunters in PIKE'S PEAK, COLORADO, led to Colorado becoming the Centennial State very rapidly
Rich deposits of silver found in Nevada in 1859. about $340 million wort of gold and silver mined for 30 years
Another name for Boomtowns
towns deserted as prospectors moved on to more promising sites or returned home
how many women made money in the West, work at saloons/cat houses
Nevada, Very popular boom town while the gold rush existed
Swifts and Armours
These "beef barons" helped industrialize the meat-packing industry, placing it as a major pillar of the economy.
Refers to the overland transport of cattle by the cowboy over the three month period. Cattle were sold to settlers and Native Americans.
also called spike towns, Towns springing up to accommodate cowboys coming in from Long Drive; usually built near RRs, had corrals, etc.
Wyoming Stock Growers' Association
started among Wyoming cattle ranchers to standardize and organize the cattle industry, and grew so large that it controlled the state legislature.
Knights of the Saddle
another name for cowboys, major part of American folklore, about 5,000 were black
Homestead Act of 1862
this allowed a settler to acquire 160 acres (1/4 section) by living on it for five years, improving it and paying about $30, exempt from attachment for debt
Great American Desert
The vast arid territory that included the Great Plains, the Rocky Mountains, and the Western Plateau. Known as this before 1860, they were the lands between the Mississippi River and the Pacific Coast. farming very difficult at first
Northern Pacific Railroad
This railroad was a leader in "induced colonization" designed to improve the profitability of railroads. It advertised abroad to entice immigrants to purchase land.
name given to Great Plains farmers because they had to break through so much thick soil, called sod, in order to farm
John Wesley Powell
explorer and geologist who warned that traditional agriculture could not succeed west of 100th meridian
farming method used in dry regions in which land is plowed and planted deeply to hold water in the soil, drastically change texture of soil which eventually leads to the Dust Bowl
Invented BARBED WIRE. This allowed a farmer to protect his land and his crops so that wild herds would not trample the property. They can fence in the property more cheaply, and the production of barbed wire went up dramatically in 1874.
in 1889 U.S. government opened up what is now Oklahoma (Sooner state) to give away land. Some settlers took possession of land before the government officially declared it open.
50,000 land prospectors in OK came to be known as when, in 1889, US government made vast stretches of fertile plains availble
Frederick Jackson Turner
"Significance of the Frontier in American History," American historian who said that humanity would continue to progress as long as there was new land to move into. The frontier provided a place for homeless and solved social problems.
safety valve theory
Theory that the availability of the frontier lessened social conflict in America by providing economic opportunities for eastern workers
became America's "second city: after NY, city as much as a safety valve for farmers as the west was for laborers; also major meat packing center
Crane, Twain, Parkman, Caitlin, Bierstadt
painters and writers who immortalized frontier life style (not very important)
Aaron Montgomery Ward
a traveling salesman whose company beginning the early 1870's eliminated the "middleman," and whose services increased retail price of goods by reaching consumers directly through mail-order catalogs (the first, another one was Sears)
idea of income tax, He wrote Progress and Poverty in 1879, which made him famous as an opponent of the evils of modern capitalism.
value of currency unit goes up, general decrease in prices, good for the creditor
value of currency unit goes down, general increase of prices, good for the debtor
amount of population involved in farming by 1890
Movement of farmers seeking relief from deflation by increasing the supply of government issued paper currency called greenbacks.
aka Patrons of Husbandry, Social and educational organization through which farmers attempted to combat the power of the railroads in the late 19th century. started out as secret society
Farmer who founded the Grange
Laborer to Husbandman, Maid of Matron
hierarchy in the Grange for both men and women
A set of laws designed to address railroad discrimination against small farmers, covering issues like freight rates and railroad rebates.
Greenback Labor Party
Political party that farmers sought refuge in at first, combined inflationary appeal of earlier Greenbackers w/ program for improving labor, Short lived profarmer third party that gained over a million votes and elected fourteen congressmen in 1878
populist candidate election 1892
A Farmers' organization founded in late 1870s; worked for lower railroad freight rates, lower interest rates, and a change in the governments tight money policy, similar to Grange
People's Party, Populists
Popocrats, evolved form the Farmers' Alliance, Third party that demanded free and unlimited coinage of silver 16:1; graduated income tax; gov ownership of telephone & telegraph, emerged in the 1890s to express rural grievances and mount major attacks on Democrats and Republicans
Minnesota populist senator elected three times
Mary Elizabeth Lease
Kansas Pythoness, powerful Populist speaker who claimed that Wall Street owned the country, wanted Kansans to raise "less corn and more hell"
American Indian Movement. demanded greater rights for Native Americans, use violence to make its point
Native American movement wanted more action than AIM
These grew near all the major mining sites and lasted only a few years, profitable business in selling food and liquor, also saloons
The extraction of mineral and energy resources near Earth's surface by first removing the soil, subsoil, and overlying rock strata.
hard rock mining
Technique that involves sinking deep mine shafts to get at ore in veins of rock. only big businesses could afford to do this
Immigrant from Germany who produced the first denim pants in San Francisco during the California Gold Rush . (originally tried to sell tents)
two French cities where Levi Strauss manufactured blue jeans (hence names 'denim' and 'jeans')
citizens who take the law into their own hands (modern day example Los Angeles Guardian Angels)
the city in CA where a man was convicted and granted his last meal; he proved that he was not guilty in the time it took the government to get fried oysters
Term for towns where vigilantism was practiced.
What the fried oyster dish became known as in places like San Francisco
A vast area of grassland owned by the government where ranchers could graze their herds for free
place in Spain where long horn steer brought from, more scrawny species roamed Texas, value for hides (cost about $4)
range wars, winter 1886-1887
two main reasons for the decline of the cowboy and that period of time; first one cowboys fight with farmers over use of land; second one winter killed off many cows
one square mile/640 acres of land (Homesteaders given 1/4 of a section)
Settlers can buy government land for $1.25 an acre. 5x more families bought land, rather than homestead it. main difference this land was surveyed before!
Morrill Land Grant College Act
1862, passed to help finance colleges that would prepare young people for practical carreers in areas such as engineering, agriculture, and veterinary medicine.
Term for colleges that trained students in agricultural and mining technology and technique. UC Davis most prominent California school
windmills, Used to fence in land on the Great Plains, eventually leading to the end of the open frontier. Joseph Glidden developed a way of making fencing cheaply by twisting together sections of wire into barbed points.
soddies/dug outs, Farmers built houses out of sod, because not many trees are around in some places. Good because it kept in the heat in the winger and cold out in the summer.
This short strain of wheat was developed and was much more drought resistant.
mail order brides
Frontiersmen in search of a spouse could send out for information on one of these women, selected from a view book.
a person to whom money is owed
Yellowstone National Park
park where bison are being kept, mainly as tourist attractions
Sarah, Plain and Tall
historical fiction book, family sends in for a mail order bride, shows life on the frontier