AP Biology Test Prep Chapter 8: Photosynthesis-Terms

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Photosynthesis

The process by which plants generate energy from light and inorganic raw materials. This occurs in the chloroplasts and involves two stages: the light-dependent reactions and the light-independent reactions

Photosynthesis Equation

H2O+CO2+light=O2+H2O+glucose

Chloroplast

The site of photosynthesis and energy production in plants cells and algae.

Stroma

The inner fluid portion of the chloroplast that plays the host to the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis.

Thylakoid Membrane System

Inner membrane that winds through the stroma of a chloroplast. Site of the light-dependent reactions.

Grana

Flattened channels and disks arranged in stacks found in the thylakoid membrane.

Autotroph

An organism that is self-nourishing. It obtains carbon and energy without ingesting other organisms.

Bundle Sheath Cells

Cells that are tightly-wrapped around the veins of a leaf. They are the site of the Calvin Cycle in C4 plants.

Calvin Cycle

A major stage of photosynthesis involving atmospheric CO2 fixation and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrates.

C4 Plant

Plant that has adapted its photosynthetic process to more efficiently handle hot and dry conditions. Has more efficient carbon fixation.

Heterotroph

An organism that must consume other organisms to obtain nourishment.

Mesophyll

Interior tissue of the leaf.

Mesophyll cells

Cells that contain many chloroplasts and host the majority of photosynthesis.

Photolysis

Process by which water is broken up by an enzyme into hydrogen ions and oxygen atoms.

Photophosphorylation

Process by which ATP is made during the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis. It is the chloroplast equivalent of oxidative phosphorylation.

Photorespiration

Process by which oxygen competes with carbon dioxide and attaches to RuBP.

Photosystem

Cluster of light-trapping pigments involved in the process of photosynthesis.

Pigment

A molecule that absorbs light of a particular wavelength.

Chlorophyll

Green pigment in plants that absorbs light energy used to carry out photosynthesis

Carotenoids

An accessory pigment, either yellow or orange, in the chloroplasts of plants. By absorbing wavelengths of light that chlorophyll cannot, these pigment broaden the spectrum of colors that can drive photosynthesis.

Phycobilins

Accessory pigment that absorbs blue light, found in red algae.

Rubisco

Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the Calvin Cycle in C3 plants.

Stomata

Structure through which CO2 enters the plant, and water vapor and O2 leave.

Transpiration

Process by which plants lose water by evaporation through their leaves.

Chlorophyll a

A type of blue-green photosynthetic pigment that is the major pigment of photosynthesis.

Chlorophyll b

A type of yellow-green accessory photosynthetic pigment that is an accessory pigment that transfers energy to chlorophyll a.

Reaction Centers

Control centers made up of pigments.

Photosystem I

One of two light-harvesting units of a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane; it uses the P700 reaction-center chlorophyll.

Photosystem II

One of two light-harvesting units of a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane; it uses the P680 reaction-center chlorophyll.

Ferredoxin

Molecule that donates electrons to NADP+ to produce NADPH during the light reactions of photosyhthesis.

Inputs of the Light Reactions

Water and light.

Oxygen

Produced from water during the light reactions, not carbon dioxide.

Noncyclic Photophosphorylation

Pathway that produces ATP, NADPH, and O2. Uses both Photosystem I and II.

Cyclic Photophosphorylation

Pathway that produces only ATP and uses Photosystem I.

Carbon Fixation

The attachment of the carbon of CO2 to a molecule that is able to enter the Calvin Cycle, assisted by Rubisco

Calvin Cycle Inputs

NADPH, ATP, and CO2

Calvin Cycle Products

NADP+, ADP, and a sugar

Carbon Dioxide

The carbon in the sugar product of the Calvin Cycle comes from this molecule.

Oxaloacetate

Compound that plays an important role in C4 synthesis of plants and the Krebs Cycle in animals.

PEP Carboxylase

An enzyme that adds CO2, instead of O2, to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to form oxaloacetate in C4 plants. It acts prior to photosynthesis.

CAM Photosynthesis

Plants close their stomata during the day, collect CO2 at night, and store the CO2 in the form of acids until it is needed during the day for photosynthesis.

C4 Photosynthesis

Photosynthetic process that alters the way in which carbon is fixed to better deal with the lack of CO2 that comes from the closing of the stomata in hot, dry regions.

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