Endocrine System - Hormones

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Hypothalamic Releasing Hormones

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)

Promotes secretion of:
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
prolactin (PRL)

Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)

Promotes secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)

Promotes secretion of:
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
luteinizing hormone (LH)

Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)

Promotes secretion of growth hormone (GH)

Target of hypothalamic releasing/inhibiting hormones

Anterior pituitary

Hypothalamic-inhibiting hormones

Prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH)
Somatostatin

Prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH)

Inhibits secretion of prolactin (PRL)

Somatostatin

Inhibits secretion of:
growth hormone (GH)
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

Hormones from anterior pituitary

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Prolactin (PRL)
Growth hormone (GH)

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

Female: growth of ovarian follicles
secretion of estrogen
Male: sperm production

Source -- anterior pituitary
Target -- ovaries, testes

Luteinizing hormone (LH)

Female: ovulation
maintenance of corpus luteum
Male: testosterone secretion

Source -- anterior pituitary
Target -- ovaries, testes

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

-growth of thyroid
-secretion of thyroid hormone

Source -- anterior pituitary
Target -- thyroid gland

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

-growth of adrenal cortex
-secretion of glucocorticoids

Source -- anterior pituitary
Target -- adrenal cortex

Prolactin (PRL)

Female: milk synthesis
Male: increased LH sensitivity

Source -- anterior pituitary
Target -- mammary glands, testes

Growth hormone (GH)

widespread tissue growth

Source -- anterior pituitary
Target -- liver, bone, cartilage, muscle, fat

Hormones from posterior pituitary

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Oxytocin (OT)

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

water retention

Source -- posterior pituitary
Target - kidneys

Oxytocin (OT)

labor contractions
milk release
-possibly involved in ejaculation, sperm transport, sexual affection, mother-infant bonding

Source -- posterior pituitary
Target -- uterus, mammary glands

Hormones from pineal gland

Melatonin

Melatonin

Uncertain; may influence mood and sexual maturation

Source -- pineal gland
Target -- brain

Hormones from thymus

Thymopoietin
Thymosin
Thymulin

Thymopoietin, thymosin, thymulin

stimulate T lymphocyte development and activity

Source -- thymus
Target -- immune cells (T lymphocytes)

Hormones from thyroid gland

Thyroxine (T4)
Triiodothyronine (T3)
Calcitonin

Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)

-elevate metabolic rate and heat production
-increase respiratory rate, heart rate, and strength of heartbeat
-stimulate appetite and accelerate breakdown of nutrients
-promote alertness and quicken relflexes
-stimulate growth hormone secretion and growth of skin, hair, nails, teeth, and fetal nervous system

Source -- thyroid gland
Target -- most tissues

Calcitonin

stimulates bone deposition

Source -- thyroid gland
Target -- bone

Hormones from parathyroid glands

Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

-increases calcium level by stimulating bone resorption and inhibiting deposition
-decreases urinary calcium excretion
-enhances calcitriol synthesis

Source -- parathyroid glands
Target -- bone, kidneys, small intestine

Hormones from adrenal medulla

Epinephrine
Norephinephrine
Dopamine

Ephinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine

-promote alertness
-mobilize organic fuels
-raise metabolic rate
-stimulate circulation and respiration
-increase blood glucose level
-inhibit insulin secretion and glucose uptake by insulin-dependent organs

Source -- adrenal medulla
Target -- most tissues

Hormones from adrenal cortex

Aldosterone
Cortisol
Corticosterone
Dehydroepiandosterone

Aldosterone

-promotes Na+ and water retention and K+ excretion
-maintains blood pressure and volume

Source -- adrenal cortex
Target -- kidney

Cortisol and Corticosterone

stimulate:
-fat and protein catabolism
-gluconeogenesis
-stress resistance
-tissue repair

Source -- adrenal cortex
Target -- most tissues

Dehydroepiandosterone

-precursor of testosterone
-indirectly promotes growth of bones, pubic and axillary hair, apocrine glands, and fetal male reproductive tract
-stimulates libido

Source -- adrenal cortex
Target -- bone, muscle, integument, brain, other tissues

Hormones from pancreatic islets

Glucagon
Insulin
Somatostatin
Pancreatic polypeptide
Gastrin

Glucagon

-stimulates amino acid absorption, gluconeogensis, glycogen and fat breakdown
-raises blood glucose and fatty acid levels

Source -- pancreatic islets
Target -- primarily liver

Insulin

-stimulates glucose and amino acid uptake
-lowers blood glucose level
-promotes glycogen, fat, and protein synthesis

Source -- pancreatic islets
Target -- most tissues

Somatostatin

modulates digestion, nutrient absorption, and glucagon and insulin secretion

Source -- pancreatic islets
Target -- stomach, intestines, pancreatic islet cells

Pancreatic polypeptide

inhibits release of bile and digestive enzymes

Source -- pancreatic islets
Target -- pancreas, gallbladder

Gastrin

stimulates acid secretion and gastric motility

Hormones from ovaries

Estradiol
Progesterone
Inhibin

Estradiol

-stimulates female reproductive development and adolescent growth
-regulates menstrual cycle and pregnancy
-prepares mammary glands for lactation

Source -- ovaries
Target -- many tissues

Progesterone

-regulates menstrual cycle and pregnancy
-prepares mammary glands for lactation

Source -- ovaries
Target -- uterus, mammary glands

Inhibin

Female: inhibits FSH secretion

Source -- ovaries
Target -- anterior pituitary

Hormones from testes

Testosterone
Inhibin

Testosterone

-stimulates fetal and adolescent reproductive development, musculoskeletal growth, sperm production, libido

Source -- testes
Target -- many tissues

Inhibin

Male: inhibits FSH secretion

Source -- testes
Target -- anterior pituitary

Hormones from skin

Cholecalciferol

Cholecalciferol

precursor of calcitriol

Source -- skin

Hormones from liver

Calcidiol
Angiotensinogen
Erythropoietin
Hepcidin
Insulin-like growth factor I

Calcidiol

precursor to calcitriol

Source -- liver

Angiotensinogen

precursor of angiotensin II

Source -- liver

Erythropoietin

-promotes red blood cell production
-increases oxygen-carrying capacity of blood

Source -- liver
Target -- red bone marrow

Hepcidin

promotes iron absorption and mobilization

Source -- liver
Target -- small intestine, liver

Insulin-like growth factor I

prolongs and mediates action of growth hormone

Source -- liver
Target -- many tissues

Hormones from kidneys

Angiotensin I
Calcitriol
Erythropoietin

Angiotensin I

precursor of Angiotensin II, a vasocontrictor

Source -- kidneys

Calcitriol

increases blood calcium level mainly by promoting intestinal absorption of calcium

Source -- kidneys
Target -- small intestine

Erythropoietin

-promotes red blood cell production
-increase oxygen-carrying capacity of blood

Source -- kidneys
Target -- red bone marrow

Hormones from heart

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)

lowers blood volume and pressure by promoting Na+ and water loss

Source -- heart
Target -- kidney

Hormones from stomach and small intestine

Cholecystokinin
Gastrin
Ghrelin
Peptide YY

Cholecystokinin

-bile release
-appetite supression

Source -- stomach/sm intestine
Target -- gallbladder, brain

Gastrin

stimulates acid secretion

Source -- stomach/sm intestine
Target -- stomach

Ghrelin

-stimulates hunger
-initiates feeding

Source -- stomach/sm intestine
Target -- brain

Peptide YY

-produces sense of satiety
-terminates feeding

Source -- stomach/sm intestine
Target -- brain

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