Characteristic of myoblast (Skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle functions)

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Skeletal, Smooth, and Cardiac muscle functions

Skeletal muscle shape

Single, very long cylindrical, multinucleated cells with obvious striations (nucleus at periphery); lots of mitochondria

Smooth muscle shape

Single, spindle shaped cells (thick in the middle and tapered at the end), uninucleated (in the center); little mitochondria; dense bodies

Cardiac muscle shape

Branching chains of cells, uni or bi nucleated; striations; nucleus in center; lots of mitochondria; intercalated discs - 2 parts: Gap junctions and desmosomes

Skeletal muscle size

Big. 100 um in diameter. Several cm in length. Myoblast fused together creates its length

Smooth muscle size

Medium. 2-10 um in diameter. Several hundred um in length.

Cardiac muscle size

Small. 15 um in diameter. 100 um in length

Skeletal muscle cross striping

Obvious striations; typical sarcomere

Smooth muscles cross striping

No striations; no sarcomere

Cardiac muscle cross striping

Striations; sarcomere

Presence of myofibrils composed of sarcomeres

Goes from z-line to z-line

Skeletal muscle presence of myofibrils composed of sarcomeres

Yes presence of myofibrils composed of sarcomeres

Smooth muscle presence of myofibrils composed of sarcomeres

No presence of myofibrils composed of sarcomeres, but actin and myosin filaments are present throughout (does not have a sarcomere)

Cardiac muscle presence of myofibrils composed of sarcomeres

Yes presence of myofibrils composed of sarcomeres, but myofibrils are of irregular thickness

Skeletal muscle location

Attached to bones or to skin

Smooth muscle location

Walls of hollow organs, such as the stomach, respirator tubes, bladder, blood vessels, and uterus

Cardiac muscle location

Walls of the heart (not part of blood vessels, just heart)

Innervation

Nerve supply

Skeletal muscle innervation

1 nerve/cell (per fiber); gradient of strength

Smooth muscle innervation

2 types:
Single unit muscle - not all cells act together
Multiunit muscle - all cells; all or nothing response

Cardiac muscle innervation

Not all cells are innervated; all or nothing contraction

Skeletal muscle blood supply

1 artery and vein/cell blood supply

Smooth muscle blood supply

Sparse blood supply

Cardiac muscle blood supply

1:1 blood supply

Slow oxidative

rich in mitochondria and myoglobin; split ATP at a slow rate

Fast oxidative

have a fast contraction velocity and are resistant to fatigue

Fast glycolytic

relatively few mitochondria, relatively few blood capillaries and large amounts

Skeletal muscle strength of contraction

all three strength; mixture of all three and genetically varying

Smooth muscle strength of contraction

Slow

Cardiac muscle strength of contraction

middle

Skeletal muscle energy requirement

ATP with or without oxygen

Smooth muscle energy requirement

ATP with oxygen

Cardiac muscle energy requirement

ATP with oxygen (little need for glycogen)

Skeletal muscle fatigue ability

Depends on type of muscle that is most abundant in individual (fast/slow oxidative or fast glycolytic)

Smooth muscle fatigue ability

Resistant to being tired

Cardiac muscle fatigue ability

Resistant to being tired

Skeletal muscle voluntary or involuntary control

Voluntary

Smooth muscle voluntary or involuntary control

involuntary

Cardiac muscle voluntary or involuntary control

involuntary

Skeletal muscle connective tissue

Epimyisum, perimysium, and endomysium

Smooth muscle connective tissue

Endomyosium

Cardiac muscle connective tissue

Endomyisum attached to fibrous skeleton of the heart

Skeletal muscle are there presence of t-tubules and site of invagination

Yes, presence of t-tubules and site of invagination at A-I junctions

Smooth muscle are there presence of t-tubules and site of invagination

No, presence of t-tubules and site of invagination caveoli among the sarcolema

Cardiac muscle are there presence of t-tubules and site of invagination

Yes presence of t-tubules and site of invagination at z-lines, larger diameter than those of skeletal muscle

Skeletal muscle elaborate sarcoplasmic reticulum

Yes, has elaborate sarcoplasmic reticulum

Smooth muscle elaborate sarcoplasmic reticulum

Equivalent to cardiac muscle; some SR contacts the sarcolemma

Cardiac muscle elaborate sarcoplasmic reticulum

Less elaborate sarcoplasmic reticulum than skeletal muscle; scant terminal cisternae

Skeletal muscle presence of gap junctions

No presence of gap junctions

Smooth muscle presence of gap junctions

Yes presence of gap junctions, in a single unit muscle but not in multi.

Cardiac muscle presence of gap junctions

Yes presence of gap junctions at intercalated discs

Skeletal muscle source of calcium for calcium pulse

Sarcoplasmic reticulum contains source of calcium for calcium pulse

Smooth muscle source of calcium for calcium pulse

SR and from extracellular fluid are the source of calcium for calcium pulse

Cardiac muscle source of calcium for calcium pulse

SR and extra cellular fluid are the source of calcium for calcium pulse

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