3D052 - Vol2 - Self Help

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What is the first job of the BIOS at stystem startup?

Run the power-on self-test (POST)

What does the CMOS store and what other component uses this information?

The configuration information about the computer; BIOS

How is main memory distinguished from secondary memory?

By the speed between the main and secondary memory

When power is removed from the computer, what happens to the stored information in ROM?

Its contents remain in memory

Why is RAM considered as volatile memory?

Because the contents are erased from memory

How are dynamic RAM and static RAM different?

DRAM chips must be refreshed constantly or they lose their contents.
SRAM chips will hold their data w/o needing to be refreshed as long as power is supplied.

What is cache memory and what is normally stored in it?

Temp Storage area; a collection of data duplicating original values

What is the main goal of buffers?

to temp hold data used by some type of hardware device until the device is ready to utilize the data

What is the purpose of the DMA controller?

To move data and to freeing up the CPU to process data

Define an interrupt.

a asynchronous signal from a computer hardware device indicating the need for attention or a synchronous event in a software application program indicating the need for a change in execution

How are interrupts commonly used?

for computer multitasking, especially in real-time computing

What is parity?

a method in which the computer ensures the data it processes is accurate

What is the difference between error correction code (ECC) memory and the parity method?

the parity method can only detect an error while ECC memory can both detect and correct errors

3 examples of storage devices that can be placed in a SAN

Disk Arrays, CD/DVD towers, tapelibraries

How can using a SAN make equipment failure easier to repair?

the data does not need to be affected; you can replace only the server

What are the 3 protocols listed that support a SAN?

Fibre Channel, ATA overEthernet, iSCSI

How does SAN and a NAS differ?

a SAN appears to the server to be physically attached; the NAS is treated as a network drive

What are the 3 concepts of RAID?

Mirroring, striping, and error correction

Why is RAID 5 considered to be more efficient when it comes to parity checks?

because you do not need separate harddrives for parity checks

What are "nested RAID arrays"?

because one array type is "nested" within anothr array type

What is machine code?

Instructions written or existing in a form acceptable by a computer

What is the distinction of an interpreted language?

No permanent object code is produced

What are some characteristics of HOL?

-Use English-like statements to increase user understanding
-Nearly self-documenting
-Permit the use of most scientific and Mathematic notations

Name four HOLS.

FORTRAN
COBOL
Ada
Pascal

What are some characteristics of assembler language.

Programmer writes mnemonics, which are converted directly to machine language by a language processor (machine specific)

What is the European Organization for Nuclear Research commonly known as?

CERN - world's largest particle physics lab

How would you best describe a URL?

the address of a file or resource accessible on the internet

What is HTML?

Set of markup symbols or codes inserted in a file intended for display on a web browser page

What significant role with XHTML play in the future?

most likely to succeed HTML for internet purposes

Describe CGI.

standard method for a web server to pass a web user's request to an application program and to exchange data back to the user

What is session management?

the process of keeping track of a user's activity across sessions of interaction with th ecomputer system

Why is session management useful when using the internet?

with out it, you would have to re-authenticate yourself every time you clicked on a hyperlink, rendering internet almost useless for secure communication

Example of session management used for security

session being terminated for inactivity and user having to reauthenticate to get back to site

What are the methods of optimizing your system?

task manager, disk defrag, ckdsk, disk quotas

What triggers can you set the task manager to launch a program on?

daily, weekly, monthly, one time only, computer stars up, log on

How can you best describe a radix and what does it indicate?

"base" and it indicates the number of digits used in a particualr numbering system

what is an exponent and what does it indicate?

written superscript and it indicates how many times a number is to multiplied by itself

Explain the difference between the most and least significant digits

MSD - left most nonzero digit (greatest possible value)
LSD - right most digit and includes zeros

whatis the purpose of fractional point?

the point that separates the whole portion of the number from the fractional portion of a number

From an IT contingency planning perspective, what are the two primary functions of risk management?

1. identify threats and vulnerabilities
2. identify residual risks

3 main classifications of threat

Natural, human, environmental

Describe a COOP

restores organizational essential fucntions at an alternate site for up to 30 days

What should a contingency plan spell out?

systems prioritized in what order to protect them and for bringing them back online

What criteria should you consider when selecting an offsite storage facility?

Geographic area, accessibility, security, environment and cost

5 types of alternate sites

cold, warm, hot, mobile, mirrored

Why should you focus most of your backup efforts on data instead of programs?

date is unique and software can always be reloaded

What 3 factors is the choice of back media based on?

size, cost, speed

4 different types of backup you can schedule

Full (AKA Normal), differential, incremental, daily

Why should you keep a copy of your backups at an alternate site?

problem or damage only effects the primary site

What is the key to understanding AD?

Understanding AD structural terms

What may be contained within objects?

network users, computers, printers, groups, data files, applications

Why is the global catalog server a critical component in a domain?

it has a "master list" of all AD objects from all domains in the forest

What are GPOs applied against?

"Leaf objects" such as users and computers but not security or distribution groups

Which command do you use to launch the AD Installation Wizard to prote a server to a domain controller?

DCPROMO

When can a command line interface be better than a GUI?

Uses less RAM and less power from the microprocessor than any other interface

What is the biggest advantage of a GUI?

most user friendly

What are 4 elements most GUIs are composed of?

Windows, Icons, Menus, Pointing devices

What are the 2 methods of installing Windows Server 2003?

attended and unattended

What is the difference between a hot fix and a service pack?

hotifx- program to quickly fix a specific problem
Service Pack - collection of fixes

How are a forward lookup and a reverse lookup different?

forward - you provide domain name and request an IP
reverse - you specify an IP address and it gives you the hostname

How do recursive queries and non-recursive queries differ?

recursive - made by client applications
non-recursive - made by name servers to other name server

Explain the importance, in DNS, of the "root".

root consists of 13 name server clusters located world wide. These servers form the upper most layer of the DNS name space

What 3 things must AF DNS servers do?

Provide reverse lookup capa.
Allow zone transfers between primary and secondary NS
Run only the DNS service

What does DHCP server do?

Manages a pool of IP addresses available for lease by authorized clients for a specific period of time

What must you be aware of when using more than one DHCP server on a network?

Make sure each scope is unique so you do not cause the creation of duplicate IP addresses

What does AF policy say about using DHCP?

Manage all base IP address space through utilization of DHCP

According to AF ploicy, how long should noncritical workstations' IP addresses be leased for?

30 days

On what servers can you install RIS?

any server that meets the Window Server 2003 minimum requirements

What directory does the RIS service default to?

/remoteinstall

When deciding on a default directory for TIS, what are 2 rules you must follow?

direcotry has to be on a partition other than the partition that holds the OS and must be formatted with NTFS

What are the services that IIS can provide?

FTP, SNMP, NNTP, WWW publishing services

Why is IIS 6.0 not activated automatically?

reduces number of access points for hackers

What are IIS's components?

WWW server, SMTP, NNTP, FTP server,

What is usually the sole purpose of installing IIS on an AF server?

to facilitate the installation of Microsoft Exchange Server

Explain what a snap-in is

Interface for a program designed to integrate with the MMC

As an Administrator, how would MMC make accomplishing your duties easier?

simplifies the management of the server and network

What are the 2 places a user account can be created?

on a local computer or a domain controller

What is the difference between permissions and rights?

permissions - control access to an object
rights - enable a user account or group to perform predefined tasks

Where is a domain user accoutn valid?

on any computer in the domain for which the account was created

Which snap-in to the MMC would you use to create a new user account?

AD Users and Computers

Why would you use group nesting?

to simplify and reduce security management overhead

What scopes can apply to special identities?

none - Group scopes do not apply to special identities

What do permisisons define?

rules by which operations can be performed on a particular resource

What is the only way to secure resources on FAT partitions?

by sharing resources

What are the 4 shared folder permissions?

Full control, change read, and no access

Which permission over rides all others?

No Access

What are the 6 NTFS permissions?

Read, Write, execute, delete, change permissions, take ownership

Why would you remove full control permission from the everyone group?

with those permissions, anyone on the network could delete or modify resources

What does Microsoft Exchange Server integrate tightly with to provide its many features?

TCP/IP infrastructure provided by Microsoft Windows Server 2003 and AD service

What protocols does Exchange server use to support web based mail client connectivity?

HTTP, SMTP, POP3, IMAP4, NNTP

What is the core data sotrage repository for Microsfot Exchange server?

Exchange information store service

What are the 2 Microsoft Exchange server roles?

Mailbox server & bridgehead server

What must the account you use to install the first Exchnage 2003 server in the forest be?

Must be a member of the domain admin group in the local domain and a local computer admin

What are data structures designed to do?

Organize data to suit a specific programming purpose

What is the purpose of a schema?

describes the objects that are represented in the database and the relationship among them

Why do we define a group of ordered data items or elements as a linked list?

b/c we use pointers to connect each element together thus specifying their order

How are columns and rows identified in a table?

Columns by name
rows by the values appearing in a particular column subset

How do base tables and derived talbes differ?

Base - self contained
derived - info that was retrieved from another table

When referring to databases, what is a view?

a virtual or logical table composed of the result set of a query

Descirbe a relational database

collection of data items organized as a set of formally descirbed tables from which data can be accessed in different ways without having to reorg the database tables

What 3 values form the bais of the 3 valued logic used by SQL?

Null, True, False

3 basic types of SQL statements

data, transaction, and schema statements

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