What is the first job of the BIOS at stystem startup?
Run the power-on self-test (POST)
What does the CMOS store and what other component uses this information?
The configuration information about the computer; BIOS
How is main memory distinguished from secondary memory?
By the speed between the main and secondary memory
When power is removed from the computer, what happens to the stored information in ROM?
Its contents remain in memory
Why is RAM considered as volatile memory?
Because the contents are erased from memory
How are dynamic RAM and static RAM different?
DRAM chips must be refreshed constantly or they lose their contents.
SRAM chips will hold their data w/o needing to be refreshed as long as power is supplied.
What is cache memory and what is normally stored in it?
Temp Storage area; a collection of data duplicating original values
What is the main goal of buffers?
to temp hold data used by some type of hardware device until the device is ready to utilize the data
What is the purpose of the DMA controller?
To move data and to freeing up the CPU to process data
Define an interrupt.
a asynchronous signal from a computer hardware device indicating the need for attention or a synchronous event in a software application program indicating the need for a change in execution
How are interrupts commonly used?
for computer multitasking, especially in real-time computing
What is parity?
a method in which the computer ensures the data it processes is accurate
What is the difference between error correction code (ECC) memory and the parity method?
the parity method can only detect an error while ECC memory can both detect and correct errors
3 examples of storage devices that can be placed in a SAN
Disk Arrays, CD/DVD towers, tapelibraries
How can using a SAN make equipment failure easier to repair?
the data does not need to be affected; you can replace only the server
What are the 3 protocols listed that support a SAN?
Fibre Channel, ATA overEthernet, iSCSI
How does SAN and a NAS differ?
a SAN appears to the server to be physically attached; the NAS is treated as a network drive
What are the 3 concepts of RAID?
Mirroring, striping, and error correction
Why is RAID 5 considered to be more efficient when it comes to parity checks?
because you do not need separate harddrives for parity checks
What are "nested RAID arrays"?
because one array type is "nested" within anothr array type
What is machine code?
Instructions written or existing in a form acceptable by a computer
What is the distinction of an interpreted language?
No permanent object code is produced
What are some characteristics of HOL?
-Use English-like statements to increase user understanding
-Permit the use of most scientific and Mathematic notations
Name four HOLS.
What are some characteristics of assembler language.
Programmer writes mnemonics, which are converted directly to machine language by a language processor (machine specific)
What is the European Organization for Nuclear Research commonly known as?
CERN - world's largest particle physics lab
How would you best describe a URL?
the address of a file or resource accessible on the internet
What is HTML?
Set of markup symbols or codes inserted in a file intended for display on a web browser page
What significant role with XHTML play in the future?
most likely to succeed HTML for internet purposes
standard method for a web server to pass a web user's request to an application program and to exchange data back to the user
What is session management?
the process of keeping track of a user's activity across sessions of interaction with th ecomputer system
Why is session management useful when using the internet?
with out it, you would have to re-authenticate yourself every time you clicked on a hyperlink, rendering internet almost useless for secure communication
Example of session management used for security
session being terminated for inactivity and user having to reauthenticate to get back to site
What are the methods of optimizing your system?
task manager, disk defrag, ckdsk, disk quotas
What triggers can you set the task manager to launch a program on?
daily, weekly, monthly, one time only, computer stars up, log on
How can you best describe a radix and what does it indicate?
"base" and it indicates the number of digits used in a particualr numbering system
what is an exponent and what does it indicate?
written superscript and it indicates how many times a number is to multiplied by itself
Explain the difference between the most and least significant digits
MSD - left most nonzero digit (greatest possible value)
LSD - right most digit and includes zeros
whatis the purpose of fractional point?
the point that separates the whole portion of the number from the fractional portion of a number
From an IT contingency planning perspective, what are the two primary functions of risk management?
1. identify threats and vulnerabilities
2. identify residual risks
3 main classifications of threat
Natural, human, environmental
Describe a COOP
restores organizational essential fucntions at an alternate site for up to 30 days
What should a contingency plan spell out?
systems prioritized in what order to protect them and for bringing them back online
What criteria should you consider when selecting an offsite storage facility?
Geographic area, accessibility, security, environment and cost
5 types of alternate sites
cold, warm, hot, mobile, mirrored
Why should you focus most of your backup efforts on data instead of programs?
date is unique and software can always be reloaded
What 3 factors is the choice of back media based on?
size, cost, speed
4 different types of backup you can schedule
Full (AKA Normal), differential, incremental, daily
Why should you keep a copy of your backups at an alternate site?
problem or damage only effects the primary site
What is the key to understanding AD?
Understanding AD structural terms
What may be contained within objects?
network users, computers, printers, groups, data files, applications
Why is the global catalog server a critical component in a domain?
it has a "master list" of all AD objects from all domains in the forest
What are GPOs applied against?
"Leaf objects" such as users and computers but not security or distribution groups
Which command do you use to launch the AD Installation Wizard to prote a server to a domain controller?
When can a command line interface be better than a GUI?
Uses less RAM and less power from the microprocessor than any other interface
What is the biggest advantage of a GUI?
most user friendly
What are 4 elements most GUIs are composed of?
Windows, Icons, Menus, Pointing devices
What are the 2 methods of installing Windows Server 2003?
attended and unattended
What is the difference between a hot fix and a service pack?
hotifx- program to quickly fix a specific problem
Service Pack - collection of fixes
How are a forward lookup and a reverse lookup different?
forward - you provide domain name and request an IP
reverse - you specify an IP address and it gives you the hostname
How do recursive queries and non-recursive queries differ?
recursive - made by client applications
non-recursive - made by name servers to other name server
Explain the importance, in DNS, of the "root".
root consists of 13 name server clusters located world wide. These servers form the upper most layer of the DNS name space
What 3 things must AF DNS servers do?
Provide reverse lookup capa.
Allow zone transfers between primary and secondary NS
Run only the DNS service
What does DHCP server do?
Manages a pool of IP addresses available for lease by authorized clients for a specific period of time
What must you be aware of when using more than one DHCP server on a network?
Make sure each scope is unique so you do not cause the creation of duplicate IP addresses
What does AF policy say about using DHCP?
Manage all base IP address space through utilization of DHCP
According to AF ploicy, how long should noncritical workstations' IP addresses be leased for?
On what servers can you install RIS?
any server that meets the Window Server 2003 minimum requirements
What directory does the RIS service default to?
When deciding on a default directory for TIS, what are 2 rules you must follow?
direcotry has to be on a partition other than the partition that holds the OS and must be formatted with NTFS
What are the services that IIS can provide?
FTP, SNMP, NNTP, WWW publishing services
Why is IIS 6.0 not activated automatically?
reduces number of access points for hackers
What are IIS's components?
WWW server, SMTP, NNTP, FTP server,
What is usually the sole purpose of installing IIS on an AF server?
to facilitate the installation of Microsoft Exchange Server
Explain what a snap-in is
Interface for a program designed to integrate with the MMC
As an Administrator, how would MMC make accomplishing your duties easier?
simplifies the management of the server and network
What are the 2 places a user account can be created?
on a local computer or a domain controller
What is the difference between permissions and rights?
permissions - control access to an object
rights - enable a user account or group to perform predefined tasks
Where is a domain user accoutn valid?
on any computer in the domain for which the account was created
Which snap-in to the MMC would you use to create a new user account?
AD Users and Computers
Why would you use group nesting?
to simplify and reduce security management overhead
What scopes can apply to special identities?
none - Group scopes do not apply to special identities
What do permisisons define?
rules by which operations can be performed on a particular resource
What is the only way to secure resources on FAT partitions?
by sharing resources
What are the 4 shared folder permissions?
Full control, change read, and no access
Which permission over rides all others?
What are the 6 NTFS permissions?
Read, Write, execute, delete, change permissions, take ownership
Why would you remove full control permission from the everyone group?
with those permissions, anyone on the network could delete or modify resources
What does Microsoft Exchange Server integrate tightly with to provide its many features?
TCP/IP infrastructure provided by Microsoft Windows Server 2003 and AD service
What protocols does Exchange server use to support web based mail client connectivity?
HTTP, SMTP, POP3, IMAP4, NNTP
What is the core data sotrage repository for Microsfot Exchange server?
Exchange information store service
What are the 2 Microsoft Exchange server roles?
Mailbox server & bridgehead server
What must the account you use to install the first Exchnage 2003 server in the forest be?
Must be a member of the domain admin group in the local domain and a local computer admin
What are data structures designed to do?
Organize data to suit a specific programming purpose
What is the purpose of a schema?
describes the objects that are represented in the database and the relationship among them
Why do we define a group of ordered data items or elements as a linked list?
b/c we use pointers to connect each element together thus specifying their order
How are columns and rows identified in a table?
Columns by name
rows by the values appearing in a particular column subset
How do base tables and derived talbes differ?
Base - self contained
derived - info that was retrieved from another table
When referring to databases, what is a view?
a virtual or logical table composed of the result set of a query
Descirbe a relational database
collection of data items organized as a set of formally descirbed tables from which data can be accessed in different ways without having to reorg the database tables
What 3 values form the bais of the 3 valued logic used by SQL?
Null, True, False
3 basic types of SQL statements
data, transaction, and schema statements