Research and Campaign Planning
|Essential steps of effective pr|| 1. research |
|research||the first essential step of effective pr. a form of listening; one begins to understand the issue or problem. controlled, objective, systematic information gathering. also provides discussion and debate of relevant topics within the academy.|
|Questions asked before research||1. what is the problem|
2. which kind of information is needed
3. how will the research results be used
which specific public/s should be researched?
4. should the organization do the research in house or hire an outside consultant?
5. how will research data be analyzed, reported, or applied?
6. how soon are the results needed?
7. how much will the research cost?
|ways to use research||1. achieving credibility with Management: facts|
2. defining audiences and segmenting publics: demographics, lifestyles, characteristics, and consumption patterns help to ensure that messages reach proper audience.
3. formulating strategy
4. testing messages: determine which particular message is most salient to a target audience.
5. preventing crisis
6. monitor competition
7. generating publicity: make sure research is known
8. measuring success
|primary research||research that uses new and original information is generated through research designed to answer specific questions|
|secondary research||research that uses existing information in books, magazine articles, and databases|
|formal research||research that is structured and purposeful.|
|informal research||research in which people talk to their colleagues and other people in their environments.|
|exploratory research||research that is based on something that hasn't been researched yet.|
|scientific research||research that is precise and scientific.|
|descriptive research||research that reports findings and surveys.|
|analytical research||research that uses statistical data to gather results.|
|qualitative research|| affords researchers rich insights and understanding of situations or target publics. it is exploratory in nature and is usually valid but not reliable. |
ex. focus groups, in-depth interviews, observation
|quantitative research|| research that is descriptive or exploratory type of research. it is usually valid and reliable; projectable to larger audiences. most of the time it is more numerical.|
ex. mail surveys, telephone polls
|research techniques||1. organizational materials: organization's policy statements, speeches by key executives, past issues of employee newsletters and magazines, etc. |
2. library and online database methods: reference books, academic journals, and trade publications; online databases.
3. internet: online search engines
4. content analysis: the systematic and objective counting or categorizing of content
6. Focus groups: used to identify the attitudes and motivations of important publics.
7. Copy Testing: representatives of the target audience are asked to read or view the material in draft form before it is mass-produced and distributed. this is done through internet sources and web surveys and wikis.
8. Sampling Methods
|intercept interview||interview where people are literally intercepted in public places and asked their opinions. this is used because it helps pr practitioners target audiences they wish to reach and to shape their messages.|
|probability/random sample||everyone in the targeted audience has an equal or known change of being selected for the survey. it is systematic and proportional.|
|non-probability sample||not randomly selected at all. this is purposive form of sampling.|
|quota sampling||drawing random samples that match the statistical characteristics of the audience. relatively easy to proportion a sample accordingly|
|population||the widest possible parameters of people whose opinions you wish to study.|
|sample size||usually a sample of 250-500 people will provide data with a 5-6% margin of error; a sample of 100 people will provide about a 10% margin.|
|mail questionnaires||one of the five methods of reaching respondents, most surveys are delivered this way. it does not have a high response rate.|
|telephone surveys||one of the five methods of reaching respondents that is very widely used. the major disadvantage is getting access to telephone numbers.|
|piggyback survey|| one of the five methods of reaching respondents; an organization buys a question in a national survey conducted by a survey organization.|
ex. General Mills placing question about who your favorite athlete is as a way to find new endorsers.
|web and email surveys||one of the five methods of reaching respondents that uses electronic communications to reach respondents.|
|personal interview||one of the five methods of reaching respondents in which respondents go out in public places and ask questions. expensive and requires traveling.|
|planning||the second step for effective pr. it must be strategic and systematic and it involves the coordination of multiple methods|
|Management by Objective - MBO||a popular approach to planning that provides focus and direction to strategy formulation and allows organizations to achieve specific objectives. there are nine basic steps:|
1. client/employer objectives
3. audience objectives
4. media channels
5. media channel objectives
6. sources and questions
7. communication strategies
8. essence of the message
9. nonverbal support
|Ketchum's Strategic Planning Model|| encourages professional to ask and determine answers to key questions about facts, goals, and audiences when planning public relations efforts. it is composed of: |
4. key message
|program plan||comes after the MBO and Ketchum model; identifies what is to be done, why, and how to accomplish it.|
|situation||one of the eight elements of a program plan; needed for the pr professional to set valid objectives for the program.|
|objective||one of the eight elements of a program plan; focuses on the outcomes. asks questions: does it really address the situation? is it realistic? can success be measured in meaningful terms?|
|audience||one of the eight elements of a program plan; who the pr programs are directed towards. can be specific and defined or general.|
|strategy||one of the eight elements of a program plan; describes how a campaign will achieve objectives; it provides guidelines and themes for the overall program.|
|tactics||one of the eight elements of a program plan; nuts-and-bolts part of the plan. they describe the specific activities that put strategies into operation and achieve the stated objectives.|
|calendar/timetable||one of the eight elements of a program plan; provides timeline of when things need to be accomplished and completed.|
|budget||one of the eight elements of a program plan; how the organization manages money|
|measurement||one of the eight elements of a program plan; relates back to the stated objectives of the program that must be measurable in some way to show clients and employers that the program has accomplished its purpose.|