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3 Written Questions

3 Multiple Choice Questions

  1. -Skinner's concept
    -animals will engage in behavior they were emitting during feeding (i.e. if pigeon was standing on one foot when you put pellets in the cage, it may repeatedly stand on one foot in an effort to get another pellet dropped in the cage)
  2. -people make use of exactly the same attributional principles they use to understand OTHERS as to understand THEMSELVES
    -showed people who read that if "Bob Dowling" turned nobs for an hour for $1 and said he enjoyed, then he must have enjoyed it (used self-perception theory as alternate explanation for results of Festinger's cognitive dissonance experiment)
  3. -scientists should not only confirm or disconfirm their theories, they should seek out tests that could prove their theory wrong
    -Popper converted to school of thought called LOGICAL POSITIVISM (science/philosophy should be based on things that can be observed with absolute certainty & to test theories we should actively try to disprove them)

3 True/False Questions

  1. positive test biastendency for people who are evaluating hypotheses to attempt to CONFIRM rather than to DISCONFIRM these hypotheses
    -Wason and colleagues (1971)


  2. McGuire's attitude innoculationtendency for social perceivers to elicit behaviors from a person that are consistent with their initial expectancies of the person
    -Snyder & Swann (1978)


  3. Festinger's Theory of Cognitive Dissonance (1957)-when a person simultaneously holds 2 beliefs that are dissonant (logically inconsistent), the person will experience an aversive state of arousal
    -person will be highly motivated to REDUCE aversive arousal by making 2 beliefs more compatible
    -experiment: doing something boring for an hour, lying to next subject about level of fun, getting paid either $1 or $20
    -subjects getting paid $1 to lie justified deceptive behavior by changing their attitudes to be more in line with behavior


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