Study guide Unit 1 U.S. Government

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Aristotle

The ones who hold governmental positions shou;d be the wealthy, and those who own property. not the ones who work in the feild BC. the wealthy have more time to think therefore are more likely to make decissions based on the common good. he thinks that only the property owners or wealthy should be citizens. Happiness is an important aspect of gov. Ruler must have the common interest of the people. He dissaproves of a monarchy and democracy so he would most likely like a republican gov.

Thomas Hobbes

English Philosopher. believed in the social contract.
BELIVED PEOPLE WERE SELF-CENTERED Believed that people first lived in anarchy or a state of nature -man with absolute power is best -only right people should have is the right to preserve their own life

John Locke

English Philosopher. believed in the social contract.
BELIEVED PEOPLE WERE REDEAMABLE + CAPABLE -man in state of nature should have natural rights=life, liberty, property -gov. has to preserve those rights - if gov. doesn't it is people's duty to overthrow gov.

Emmanuel Kant

One cannot reach maturity until one can think for themselves. People are...Lazy, undetermined, not given chance to think for themselves, won't step out of their comfort zone. **THINK FOR YOURSELF** people who think for us= -pastor -officer(police) -physicians -tax collectors -military. ENLIGHTENMENT= thinking by yourself!

Baron de Montesquieu

THE LAWS: -men should know and abide by the laws. - laws should be reasonable and relative to time + country POLITICAL LIBERTY: -anyone with power will abuse it -power should be checked- absolute power will corrupt absolutely

Jean Jacques Rousseau

SOCIAL CONTRACT: -men cannot create new forces, but they can combine them -people don't have social mobility. born the way we stay. gov. keeps us down.

Jean Baptiste Colbert/ Louis the XIV

COLBERT: economic advisor -wants merchants to benefit most from his plan. LOUIS: absolute monarch
-wants to control everything including economics

Adam Smith

"Laissez faire"= "let do" -idea of the INVISIBLE HAND. -innovative goods, and services for all -The division of labor increases productivity -gov. should intervene as little as possible in economy ~Free Market Capitalism

What are the main components of classical republicanism?

-Humans are not self sufficient -people need each other -everythingis about community -DUTIES OVER RIGHTS -highest position= office of citizen -values taught by community. ***COMMON GOOD*** -exercise civic virtue -achieve human excellence -community interests before individual ones -public shpere=most important -people have a duty to participate in community and gov.

What is civic virtue and where/when has it been promoted?

Civic virtue is sacraficing some things for the common good of a society. This is a main component of classical republicanism. Seen when George Washington resigned as president so that the government would not become a monarchy.

What are the main components of natural rights philosophy?

The main components of natural rights phiosophy are to ensure the protection of life, liberty, and property. Self interest, and pursuing opportunities. public sphere=a collection of private individuels and interests, there should be no limit on possesions or economic gain, and government must be limited; public sphere as small as possible. individual chooses if they participate in community or gov.

How did Judeo-Christian values impact life in the American Colonies?

Judeo-Christian values impacted life in the American Colonies by teaching the belief in the dignity and bworth of every human being. they also taught the colonists to act right in their religion.

How does social contract theory factor into different types of government?

The social contract theory factors into different types of gov. because it is the balence between gov. and people so if one party breaks the agreement, it is off. EX. if government doesn't protect people's rights, it will be overthrown.

What does stare decisis translate to and how is it significant in U.S. government?

Stare Decisis translates to "let the decision stand". It is significant in U.S. gov. because it is basically a precedent that the court makes. A precedent is an exampled to be followed in the future.

What does habeas corpus translate to and how is it significant in U.S. government?

Habeas Corpus translates to "You shall have the body." It is significant in U.S. gov. because it is an order to produce a person's (accused) body in front of a judge within 3 days of the request.

What impact did the Magna Carta (1215) have on the development of modern democracy?

The impact the Magna Carta had was that it stated that the king and the gov. were bound by the same laws as the citizens, basically stating that no one was above the laws. it also contained the ideas of due process and the right to a fair trail, which are both components of our U.S. Bill of Rights.

What impact did the English B.O.R. (1689) have on the development of modern democracy?

The impact the English B.O.R. had was the two important principles of Rule of law-foundation of legitimate gov. and Representation in government-ex. the three branches in our U.S. gov.

Capitalism and mercantilism. What are their differences? Pros? Cons?

CAPITALISM-an economic system based on private property and free enterprise. MERCANTILISM-an economic system where profit is made from trade, imported goods, and exported goods. the difference is that capitalism is based on the individual's control of their own prosperity, while mercantilism is based on gov.'s control of the people's prosperity. PROS=Capitalism-increased productivity Mercantilism-merchants benefit the most. CONS=Mercantilism-not all occupations benefit greatly + not much freedom, Capitalism-if companies raise prices, consumers don't benefit as much.

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