Particle that is a fundamental building block of matter.
Number of protons in the atomic nucleus; determines the element.
Electrical property of some subatomic particles. Opposite charges attract; like charges repel.
Negatively charted subatomic particle that occupies orbitals around the atomic nucleus.
A pure substance that consists only of atoms with the same number of protons.
Forms of an element that differ in the number of neutrons their atoms carry.
Total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an element's atoms.
Uncharged subatomic particle in the atomic nucleus.
Core of an atom; occupied by protons and neutrons.
Positively charged subatomic particle that occurs in the nucleus of all atoms.
Process by which atoms of a radioisotope spontaneously emit energy and subatomic particles when their nucleus disintegrates.
Isotope with an unstable nucleus.
Atom that carries a charge because it has an unequal number of protons and electrons.
Model of electron distribution in an atom.
A molecule with a detectable label.
An attractive force that arises between two atoms when their electrons interact.
Chemical bond in which two atoms share a pair of electrons.
Attraction that forms between a covalently bonded hydrogen atom and another atom taking part in a separate covalent bond.
Type of chemical bond in which a strong mutual attraction forms between ions of opposite charge.
Group of two or more atoms joined by chemical bonds.
Having an even distribution of charge.
Have an uneven distribution of charge.
Any separation of charge into distinct positive and negative regions.
Tendency of molecules to stick together.
Transition of a liquid to a gas.
Describes a substance that dissolves easily in water.
Describes a substance that resists dissolving in water.
Measure of the number of hydrogen ions in a fluid.
Compound that dissolves easily in water and release ions other than H+ or OH-.
A dissolved substance.
Liquid that can dissolve other substances.
Measure of molecular motion.
Substance that releases hydrogen ions in water.
Substance that accepts hydrogen ions in water.
Set of chemical that can keep the pH of a solution stable by alternately donating and accepting ions that contribute to pH.
Type of molecule that consists primarily of carbon and hydrogen atoms.
Molecule that consists primarily of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in a 1:2:1 ratio.
Process by which enzymes build large molecules from smaller subunits; water also forms
Process by which an enzyme breaks a molecule into smaller subunits by attaching a hydroxyl group to one part and a hydrogen atom to the other.
All the enzyme-mediated chemical reactions by which cells acquire and use energy as the build and break down organic molecules.
Molecule that is a subunit of polymers.
Molecule that consists of multiple monomers.
Small organic compound with a carboxyl group, an amine group, and a characteristic side group ®.
Lipid with one, two, or three fatty acid tails.
Organic compound that consists of a long chain of carbon atoms with an acidic carboxyl group at one end.
A lipid with a phosphate group in its hydrophilic head, and two nonpolar fatty acid tails.
Organic compound that consist of one or more chains of amino acids.
Fatty acid with no double bonds in its carbon tail.
A type of lipid with four carbon rings and no fatty acid tails.
A lipid with three fatty acid tails attached to a glycerol backbone.
Lipid with at least one double bond in a fatty acid tail.
Water-repellent lipid with long fatty acid tails bonded to long-chain alcohols or carbon rings.
To unravel the shape of a protein or other large biological molecule.
A bond between the amine group of one amino acid and the carboxyl group of another.
Chain of amino acids linked by peptide bonds.
Nucleotide that consists of an adenine base, five-carbon ribose sugar, and three phosphate groups. Also functions as an energy carrier.
Nucleic acid that carries hereditary material; consists of two nucleotide chains twisted in a double helix.
Chain of nucleotides joined by sugar-phosphate bonds.
Monomer of nucleic acids; has five-carbon sugar, nitrogen-containing base, and phosphate groups.
Typically single-stranded nucleic acid; has role in protein synthesis.