Linux 3060 chapter - 7

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/boot/grub/grub.conf

The GRUB configuration file in most Linux distributions.

/boot/grub/menu.lst

The GRUB configuration file in SLES.

/etc/default/passwd

A file that contains default values used when changing passwords such as encryption algorithm.

/etc/default/useradd

A file that contains default values used when creating user accounts.

/etc/fstab

A file used to store information used to mount filesystems.

/etc/group

The file that contains system groups and their members.

/etc/grub.conf

The file that contains information about GRUB components.

/etc/gshadow

A file that is typically used on older Linux computers. It can contain encrypted group passwords.

/etc/lilo.conf

The LILO configuration file.

/etc/login.defs

A file that contains default values used when creating user accounts.

/etc/mtab

A file that lists currently mounted filesystems.

/etc/passwd

The file that contains user account information such as name, UID, primary group, home directory, and shell.

/etc/security/limits.conf

A file that lists user resource limits.

/etc/shadow

The file that typically contains encrypted passwords and password expiry information for user accounts on the system.

/etc/shells

A file that lists valid system shells such as /bin/bash.

/etc/skel

A directory that contains files and directories that are copied to all new users' home directories when they are created.

allocation groups

Sections of a block within an XFS filesystem.

aquota.group

A file that stores group quota information for a filesystem.

aquota.user

A file that stores user quota information for a filesystem.

B+ tree

A structure used to organize files on a filesystem for fast access.

block

The unit of data commonly used by a filesystem.

boot loader

See boot manager.

boot manager

The program used to load and start the operating system kernel at system startup.

chgrp (change group) command

Used to change the group owner of a file or directory.

chkconfig command

Used to set the startup status of a service in Linux.

chmod (change mode) command

Used to change the mode (permissions) of a file or directory.

chown (change owner) command

Used to change the owner and group owner of a file or directory.

dumpe2fs command

Used to obtain filesystem information from Ext2 and Ext3 filesystems.

edquota command

Used to specify quota limits for users and groups.

Ext2

The traditional filesystem used on older Linux systems.

Ext3

A journaling version of the Ext2 filesystem.

fdisk command

Used to create, delete, and modify hard disk partitions.

filesystem

A structure used to organize blocks on a device such that they can be used by the operating system to store data.

fsck command

Used to check and repair filesystems.

fuser command

Used to identify users and processes using a particular file or directory.

grace period

The amount of time a user can exceed a quota limit.

Grand Unified Boot Loader (GRUB)

The default boot manager in SLES.

group

When referring to a long file or directory listing, it represents the group ownership of a file or directory.

Group Identifier (GID)

A number that uniquely identifies system groups.

groupadd command

Used to add a group to the system.

groupdel command

Used to delete a group from the system.

groupmod command

Used to modify the name, membership, or GID of a group on the system.

hard limit

A quota limit that cannot be exceeded.

inode

The section of a file or directory that stores all information about it except the filename.

JFS

A journaling filesystem that supports large filesystem sizes.

journaling

A filesystem feature that records all filesystem transactions in a small transaction log on the filesystem for tracking and troubleshooting purposes.

lilo command

Used to reinstall the LILO boot manager after configuration changes.

Linux Loader (LILO)

The traditional boot manager used on Linux systems. The 64-bit version of this boot loader is called ELILO.

make command

Used to compile source code into programs according to a makefile.

make install command

Used to copy a compiled program to the correct location on the filesystem.

makefile

A file created by a configuration script that contains settings used when compiling source code.

metadata

The section of a filesystem that is not used to store user data.

mkfs command

Used to create most filesystems in Linux.

mkpasswd command

Used to create an encrypted password string.

mkreiserfs command

Used to create ReiserFS filesystems.

mount command

Used to mount filesystems on devices to mount point directories.

mount point

A directory to which a device is mounted.

other

When referring to a long file or directory listing, it represents all users on the Linux system that are not the owner or a member of the group on the file or directory.

owner

The user whose name appears in a long listing of a file or directory and who typically has the most permissions to that file or directory.

partition

A physical division of a hard disk drive.

passwd command

Used to modify user passwords and expiry information as well as lock and unlock user accounts.

Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM)

A set of components that allow programs to access user account information.

primary group

The group specified for a user in the /etc/passwd file that becomes the group owner on newly created files and directories.

pwck command

Used to check the validity of the /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow files.

pwconv command

Used to enable the use of the /etc/shadow file.

pwunconv command

Used to disable the use of the /etc/shadow file.

quotacheck command

Used to update the quota database files.

quotaoff command

Used to deactivate disk quotas.

quotaon command

Used to activate disk quotas.

quotas

Filesystem usage limits that may be imposed upon users and groups.

Red Hat Package Manager (RPM)

A format used to distribute software packages on most Linux systems.

ReiserFS

A journaling filesystem that uses B+ tree structures and has fast data access.

reiserfsck command

Used to check and repair ReiserFS filesystems.

repquota command

Used to produce a report on quotas for a particular filesystem.

rpm command

Used to install, remove, and find information on RPM software packages.

Set Group ID (SGID)

A special permission set on executable files and directories. When you run an executable program that has the SUID permission set, you become the group owner of the executable file for the duration of the program. On a directory, the SGID sets the group that gets attached to newly created files.

Set User ID (SUID)

A special permission set on executable files. When you run an executable program that has the SUID permission set, you become the owner of the executable file for the duration of the program.

soft limit

A quota limit that can be exceeded for a certain period of time.

Sticky bit

A special permission that is set on directories that prevents users from removing files that they do not own.

superblock

The section of a filesystem that stores the filesystem structure.

ulimit command

Used to set resource limits for user accounts.

umask

A system variable that sets permissions for newly created files.

umask command

Used to view and change the system umask.

umount command

Used to unmount a device from a mount point directory.

user

When referring to a long file or directory listing, it represents the owner of that file or directory.

User Identifier (UID)

A number that uniquely identifies each system user account.

useradd command

Used to add a user account to the system.

userdel command

Used to remove a user account from the system.

usermod command

Used to modify the properties of a user account on the system.

VFAT

A Linux version of the Microsoft FAT filesystem.

XFS

A journaling filesystem that uses allocation groups to manage data.

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