That is the function of the digestive system?
Break down food through mechanical and chemical digestion; after being digested, nutrient molecules are absorbed into the body and enter the blood stream; any food not digested or absorbed is eliminated as solid waste
Which organs are make up the digestive system?
Colon, Esophagus, Gallbladder (GB), Liver, Oral cavity, Pancreas, Pharynx, Salivary glands, Small intestine, Stomach
What is another name for the digestive system?
Gastrointestinal Tract; Gut; or Ailmentary canal
What organs are considered accessory organs?
Liver, Pancreas, Gallbladder, and Salivary glands
What are the three main functions of the digestive system?
Digesting food, Absorbing nutrients, and Eliminating waste
What is the process of digestion?
Includes physical and chemical breakdown of large food particles into small simple nutrient molecules such as glucose, triglycerides, and amino acids, then absorbed by the intestines and circulated throughout the cardiovascular system used for growth and repair of organs and tissues unused nutrients are eliminated as solid waste
What happens with nutrients that cannot be absorbed by the body?
Eliminated as a solid waste
Where does the GI tract start and end?
Starts at the mouth and ends at the anus
What is the function of the tongue?
To move food around the mouth and mixes it with saliva
What is in saliva?
Digestive enzymes to break down carbohydrates and slippery lubricants to make food easier to swallow
What are found on the the top of the tongue?
What is the roof of oral cavity called?
What is the function of taste buds?
To distinguish the bitter, sweet, sour, and salty flavors in food
What is hanging down from the posterior edge of the soft palate?
What is the function of the uvula?
Role in speech production and plays a role in the gag reflex stimulated when food enters the throat without swallowing helping the epiglottis
What form the lateral walls of the oral cavity?
What form the anterior opening of the oral gravity?
What is the entire oral cavity lined with?
What forms the gums?
What is the function of the gums?
Combine with connective tissue to cover the jaw bone and seal off the teeth in their bony sockets
What is important for the first stage of digestion?
The teeth to grind, tear, and bite food into small pieces
How many different kinds of teeth are there>
What are the different kinds of teeth?
Incisors, cuspids, bicuspids, and molars
What is another name for cuspids?
What is another name for bicuspids?
How can a tooth be divided?
Into crowns and roots
Which part of a tooth is the crown?
The part of the tooth that is visible above the gum line
Which part of the tooth is the root?
The part that is below the gum line
How is the root attached to the bony socket of the upper jaw?
By cementum and tiny periodontal ligaments
What is covering the crown of a tooth?
Is enamel is hardest substance in the body?
What is under the layer of enamel?
What is the hollow part of a tooth?
Pulp Cavity in the crown and root canal in the root
What does the pulp cavity and root canal contain?
Soft tissue, blood vessels, nerves, and lymph vessels
What are the two sets of teeth humans have?
Deciduous teeth and permanent teeth
What is another name for deciduous teeth?
How many teeth are in the deciduous set and when do they begin to rise and fall out?
20 teeth in the set; begin around 6 to 28 months; and approximately 6 years of age
What are the deciduous teeth replaced with?
How many teeth are in the permanent set?
How long does the replacement process for teeth continue until?
18 to 20 years of age
When food is swallowed where does it enter?
After food passes the oropharynx where does it go?
Through the laryngopharynx
What is the eipglottis?
A cartilaginous flap
What is the function of the epiglottis?
It folds down to cover the larynx and trachea so that food is prevented from entering the respiratory tract and instead continues into the esophagus
How long is the esophagus?
Approximately 10 inches in adults
What carries food to the stomach?
How does the food move through the esophagus?
Through wavelike muscular contractions called peristalsis
Does peristalsis work through the whole GI tract?
What shape is the stomach?
A J-shaped bag or sac
What is the function of the stomach?
To collect and churn food with digestive juices
What are the three parts of the stomach?
The fundus or upper region; the body or main portion; and antrum or lower region
What are the folds of the stomach called?
What happens to the rugae when the stomach fills with food?
Stretch out and disappear
What is secreted by the glands of the stomach?
What is is mixture of acid and other gastric juices called?
What are the muscular valves controlled by the stomach called?
What is the purpose of valves?
To ensure flow only one way
Where is the cardiac sphincter located?
Between the esophagus and the fundus
What is another name for the cardiac sphincter?
The lower esophageal sphincter (LES)
What is the function of the cardiac sphincter?
To prevent food from flowing backwards into the esophagus
Where does the antrum taper off?
At the pyloric sphincter
What is the function of the pyloric sphincter?
It regulates the passage of food into the small intestine
Why can only small amounts of chyme enter the small intestine at one time?
Two reasons: The small intestine is narrower and cannot hold as much as the stomach; Chyme is highly acidic and must be thoroughly neutralized
What is another name for the small intestine?
Where is the small intestine located?
Between the pyloric sphincter and the colon
What is the primary function of the small intestine?
To absorb nutrients in food
What is the average length of the small intestine?
What is the longest portion of the alimentary canal?
The small intestine
What are the three parts of the small intestine?
The duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum
What is the function of the duodenum?
Where digestion is completed after the liquid chyme is mixed with digestive juices from the pancreas and gallbladder
Where is the duodenum located?
Between the pyloric sphincter and the jejunum
How long is the duodenum?
Approximately 10-12 inches
Where is the jejunum located?
Between the the duodenum and the ileum
How long is the jejunum?
Approximately 8 feet
What is another name for the jejunum?
The middle section
Where is the ileum located?
Between the jejunum and the colon
How long is the ileum?
Approximately 12 feet
What is the longest portion of the small intestine?
How does the ileum connect to the colon?
By a sphincter called the ileocecal valve
What is the material that remains after absorption is solid waste called?
Feces or stool
What is the term for how stool is evacuated?
Bowel movements (BM)
How long is the colon?
Approximately 5 feet
Where is the colon located?
Between the ileocecal valve and the anus
What is the pouch or saclike area in the first two to three inches of the colon?
What is the small worm shaped outgrowth at the end of the cecum called?
The vermiform appendix
What does the end of the colon consist of?
The ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, and sigmoid colon
Where is the ascending colon located?
On the right side extends from the cecum to the lower border of the liver
Where is the transverse colon located?
Starts where the ascending colon ends and moves horizontally across the upper abdomen toward the spleen
Where is the descending colon located?
Down the left side after the transverse colon to where the sigmoid colon begins
What is the s shaped back to the midline of the body called?
The sigmoid colon
Where does the sigmoid colon end?
At the rectum
Where is feces stored?
Where does the rectum end?
At the anus
What does the anus contain?
The anal sphincter
What does the anal sphincter consist of?
Rings of voluntary and involuntary muscles to control the evacuation of feces
What is another name for feces?
What do salivary glands produce?
What is the term for saliva mixed with food?
What enzyme does saliva contain?
What is the function of the enzyme amylase?
To begin to digest carbohydrates
Where are the parotid glands located?
In front of the ears
Where are the submandibular and sublingual glands located?
In the floor of the mouth
Which quadrant is the liver located in?
The Right upper
What functions does the liver perform?
Processing the nutrients absorbed by the small intestine; Detoxifying harmful substances in the body; Producing bile
What is the function of bile?
Important for digestion of fats and lipids because it breaks up large fat globules into much smaller droplets making them easier to digest in the watery environment inside the intestines
What is the process in the bile of the liver called?
Where is bile stored?
In the gallbladder (GB)
As the liver produces bile where does it travel?
Down the hepatic duct and then up the cystic duct into the gallbladder
In the presence of fat in the chyme the gallbladder sends bile back down the cystic duct into where?
The common bile duct (CBD)
Where does the common bile duct carry bile to?
What emulsifies the fat in chyme?
How does the pancreas connect to the duodenum?
By the pancreatic duct
What does the pancreas secret for digestion?
Buffers and Pancreatic enzymes
What is the function of buffers produced by the pancreas?
Neutralize acidic chyme that has just left the stomach
What is the function of pancreatic enzymes?
Chemically digest carbohydrates, fats, and proteins
Is the pancreas also a endocrine gland?
What does the pancreas secret other than for digestion?
Hormones insulin and glucagon which play a role in regulating levels of glucose in the blood