Describe the difference between personal and situational attributions.
Personal attributions are explanations for outcomes that come from inside of you, like traits, moods, and abilities, while situational attributions come from the outside, like weather, luck accidents, or other people.
Explain the fundamental attribution error.
The tendency to overemphasize personal factors nd underestimate situational factors in explaining behavior.
What is the mere exposure effect?
Typically, the more somebody is exposed to something, the more he or she tends to like it. Think the mermaid effect.
Explain the difference between central and peripheral routes to persuasion.
Central persuasion is when people pay attention to arguments, consider all the information, and use rational cognitive processes to make an opinion. It leads to strong attitudes that last over time. Peripheral routes is when people minimally process the message, and leads to more-impulsive action, as when a person decides to purchase a product because a celebrity has endorsed it.
How did Sherif reduce prejudice in summer camp study?
By having the two camps of kids work on a common goal, such as rigging a truck to get stuck so both camps had to pull on the rope.
Explain the concept of inclusive fitness.
The adaptive benefits of transmitting genes rather than focusing on individual survival
Describe the difference between an implicit and explicit attitude. How does the IAT measure implicit attitudes?
Explicit attitudes: attitudes that people can report
Implicit attitudes: Attitudes that influence our feelings and behavior at an unconscious level. Like riding a bicycle, you don't even realize you're doing it. The IAT (Implicit Association Test), measures how quickly we associate concepts or objects with positive or negative words.
What is the difference between prejudice and discrimination?
Prejudice: The usually negative affective or attitudinal responses associated with stereotypes
Discrimination: The inappropriate and unjustified treatment of people based solely on their group membership.
Describe how self-fulfilling prophecies and subtyping function to keep stereotypes in place.
Self-fufilling prophecies are people's tendency to behave in ways that confirm their own or others; expectations. So when you are told that you are going to be one way, you become that way.
What is the outgroup homogeneity effect?
People tend to think of outgroup members as less varied than ingroup members.
Under what conditions is groupthink most likely to occur? What can you do to make groupthink less likely?
Groupthink typically occurs when a group is under intense pressure, s facing external threats, and is biased in a particular direction. To make groupthink less likely, leaders must refrain from expressing their opinions too strongly at the beginning of discussions. The group should be encouraged to consider alternative ideas, either by having someone play devil's advocate or by purposefully examining outside opinions.
When are attitudes most likely to predict behavior?
Attitudes are most likely to predict behavior when outside influences are minimal, when attitude and behavior are specific, and when you are made acutely aware of your attitudes.
Explain what causes cognitive dissonance. Under what conditions are you especially likely to have cognitive dissonance?
Cognitive dissonance occurs when your actions and your attitudes differ, for example, if you consider yourself honest but then cheat on a test. You are very likely to have cognitive dissonance when you need to justify freely made choices or decisions, need to justify behavior that conflicts with a view of yourself, or you need to justify the effort put into a decision or choice.
What happened in Zimbardo's prison study? What important lessons were learned from this study?
In Zimbardo's prison study, the people who were paid to act like guards became abusive and power hungry, the prisoners became apathetic, and Zimbardo himself began to act like a warden. We learned that people will fall into the roles society gives them.
Explain how Asch's famous series of studies worked. Under what conditions does the type of conformity that Asch found become more likely?
People are likely to conform with a group's decisions, even when they are wrong. This was the test where people would go with a groups decision during the line test. The type of conformity becomes more likely when you feel incompetent or insecure, there are at least three people in the group, the group is unanimous, and the group is high status or attractive.
What is the difference between normative and informational social influence?
Normative influence is to go with a group's decision because you want to gain approval or avoid rejection, while informational social influence is when you use a group to gain reliable information.
Explain the basics of Milgram's famous obedience study. According to this study, under what conditions is obedience most likely to occur? What can make obedience to authority less likely? When asked to predict how others would behave in the Milgram study, what did people predict?
This is the experiment where people would keep shocking the other test subject when ordered to. Obedience is most likely to occur when the person in charge is seen as a legitimate authority, he is backed by a legitimate institution, the victim is depersonalized or at a distance, and there are no role models for resistance. Obedience is less likely to occur when the teacher could observe the learner, or the professor gave orders over the phone.
What is the bystander effect/diffusion of responsibility? What conditions make it more likely that a bystander will intervene?
The more bystanders there are, the less likely it is for an individual to get involved. They will intervene more often when the situation is seen as an emergency, they are not in a rush, assume personal responsibility, the victim is in a similar state as them, they are in a rural environment, and the person is in a good mood.
What is deindividuation? What types of studies have psychologists conducted to study deindividuation and what have they found?
Deindividuation is when people are swept up as part of a group. This is shown when people yell jump at suicide victims. The radio thief example shows this.