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muckrakers

Progressive Era journalists who wrote articles exposing corruption in city government, business, and industry. In John Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress, "the Man with the Muck-rake" is so preoccupied with raking through the filth at his feet that he didn't notice he was being offered a celestial crown in exchange for his rake

Ida Tarbell

Progressive Era journalist whose expose revealed the ruthlessness of the Standard Oil Company

Lincoln Steffens

Muckraking journalist and managing editor of McClure's Magazine, best known for investigating political corruption in city governments

Upton Sinclair

Socialist writer and reformer whose novel The Jungle exposed unsanitary conditions in the meatpacking industry and advocated socialism

Frank Norris

Muckraker during the Progressive Era; wrote "The Octopus" (1901) that described the power of the railroads over Western farmers

Robert La Follette

Governor of Wisconsin who instituted reforms such as direct primaries, tax reform, and anticorruption measures in Wisconsin

Northern Securities case

Roosevelt's legal attack on the Northern Securities Company, which was a railroad holding company owned by James Hill and J.P. Morgan. In the end, the company was "trust-busted" and paved the way for future trust-busts of bad trusts

Hepburn Act

Law passed by Congress in 1906 that authorized the Interstate Commerce Commission to set maximum railroad rates and regulate other forms of transportation

Meat Inspection Act

Law passed by Congress in 1906 requiring federal inspection of meatpacking

Pure Food and Drug Act

Law passed by Congress in 1906 forbidding the sale of impure and improperly labeled food and drugs

Payne-Aldrich Tariff

Tariff passed by Congress in 1909; the original bill was an attempt to reduce tariffs, but the final version retained high tariffs on most imports

Progressive Party

Political party formed in 1912 with Theodore Roosevelt as its candidate for president; it fell apart when Roosevelt returned to the Republicans in 1916

Underwood Tariff

Law passed by Congress in 1913 that substantially reduced tariffs and made up for the lost revenue by providing for a graduated income tax

Clayton Anti-Trust Act

Law passed by Congress in 1914 banning monopolistic business practices such as price fixing and interlocking directorates; it also exempted farmers' organizations and unions from prosecution under antitrust laws

Margaret Sanger

Birth-control advocate who believed so strongly that information about birth control was essential to help women escape poverty that she disobeyed laws against its dissemination

Muller v. Oregon

Supreme Court case in 1908, upholding an Oregon law that limited the hours of employment for women

Federal Reserve Act

Law passed by Congress in 1913 establishing twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks to hold the cash reserves of commercial banks and a Federal Reserve Board to regulate aspects of banking

Federal Trade Commission

Law passed by Congress in 1914 that outlawed unfair methods of competition in interstate commerce and created a commission appointed by the president to investigate illegal business practices

Jeanette Rankin

Montana reformer who in 1916 became the first woman elected to Congress; she worked to pass the woman sufferage amendment and to protect women in the workplace

feminism

The conviction that women are and should be the social, political, and economic equals of men

local option law

A state law that permitted the residents of a town or city to decide, by an election, whether to ban liquor sales in their community

Mann Act

Law passed by Congress in 1910, designed to supress prostitution; it made transporting a woman across state lines for immoral purposes illegal

Karl Marx

German journalist and philosopher, founder of the Marxist branch of socialism. He is known for two books: The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (Vols. I-III, 1867-1894)

Socialist Party of America

Political party formed in 1901 and committed to socialism- that is, government ownership of most industries

Treaty of Portsmouth

Treaty in 1905, ending the Russo-Japanese War; negotiated at a conference in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, through Theodore Roosevelt's mediation

William Howard Taft

Governor of the Philippines from 1901 to 1904; he was elected president of the United States in 1908 and became chief justice of the Supreme Court in 1921

commission system

System of city government in which all executive and legislative power is vested in a small elective board, each member of which supervises some aspect of city government

city manager plan

System of city government in which a small council, chosen on a nonpartisan ballot, hires a city manager who exercises broad executive authority

city planning

The policy of planning urban development by regulating land use

direct primary

An election in which voters who identify with a specific party choose that party's candidates to run later in the general election against the candidates of other parties

Wisconsin Idea

The program of reform sponsored by La Follette in Wisconsin, designed to decrease political corruption, foster direct democracy, regulate corporations, and increase expertise in governmental decision making

Elkins Act

Law passed by Congress in 1903 that supplemented the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 by penalizing railroads that paid rebates

Square Deal

Theodore Roosevelt's term for his efforts to deal fairly with all

trustbusting

Use of antitrust laws to prosecute and dissolve big businesses ("trusts")

Gifford Pinchot

Head of the Forestry Service from 1898 to 1910; he promoted conservation and urged careful planning in the use of natural resources

Sixteenth Amendment

Constitutional amendment ratified in 1913 that gives the federal government the authority to establish an income tax

Seventeenth Amendment

Constitutional amendment ratified in 1913 that requires the election of U.S. senators directly by the voters of each state, rather than by state legislatures

Eighteenth Amendment

Constitutional amendment, ratified in 1919, that forbade the manufacture, sale, or transportation of alcoholic beverages

Nineteenth Amendment

Constitutional amendment, ratified in 1919, that prohibited federal or state governments from restricting the right to vote on account of sex

New Nationalism

Program of labor and social reform that Theodore Roosevelt advocated before and during his unsuccessful bid to regain the presidency in 1912

Hay-Pauncefote Treaty

Two seperate treaties (1900 and 1901) signed by the United States and Britain taht gave the United States the exclusive right to build, control, and fortify a canal through Central America

Philippe Bunau-Varilla

Chief engineer of the French company that attempted to build a canal through the Panamanian isthmus, chief planner of the Panamanian revolt against Colombia, and later minister to the United States from the new Republic of Panama

Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty

1903 treaty with Panama that granted the United States sovereignty over the Canal Zone in teturn for a $10 million payment plus an annual rent

Roosevelt Corollary

Extension of the Monroe Doctrine announced by Theodore Roosevelt in 1904, in which he proclaimed the right of the United States to police the Carribean areas

Dollar Diplomacy

Name applied by critics to the Taft administration's policy of supporting U.S. investments abroad

Woodrow Wilson

28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize

New Freedom

Program of reforms that Woodrow Wilson advocated during his 1912 presidential campaign, including reducing tariffs and prosecuting trusts

Porfirio Diaz

Mexican soldier and politician who became president after a coup in 1876 and ruled Mexico until 1911

Victoriano Huerta

Mexican general who overthrew President Francisco Madero in 1913 and established a military dictatorship until forced to resign in 1914

Vera Cruz

Mexican port that Wilson commanded the navy to capture before congress could respond to his asking them permission to use force against mexico. Huerta and Carranza both opposed this action.

Francisco "Pancho" Villa

Mexican bandit and revolutionary who led a raid into New Mexico in 1916, which prompted the U.S. government to send troops into Mexico in unsuccessful pursuit

Triple Alliance

Alliance that linked Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary in the years before World War I

Triple Entente

Informal alliance that linked France, Great Britain, and Russia in the years before World War I

Central Powers

In World War I, the coalition of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire

John Pershing

President Wilson sent this U.S. general with his army to Mexico to Pancho Villa (never captured Villa)

Fourteen Points

President Wilson's program for maintaining peace after World War I, which called for arms reduction, national self-determination, and a league of nations

Sussex Ultimatum

In response to the German torpedoes Sussex steamer, Wilson told Germany that if they didnt stop sinking merchant ships with warning, he would break diplomatic relations

Committee on Public Information

Organization also known as the Creel Commision which was responsible for rallying American's around the war effort through propaganda

War Industries Board

Federal agency headed by Bernard Baruch that coordinated American production during World War I

Schenck v. U.S.

Unanimously upheld the Espionage Act of 1917 which declared that people who interfered with the war effort were subject to imprisonment; declared that the 1st Amendment right to freedom of speech was not absolute; free speech could be limited if its exercise presented a "clear and present danger."

Treaty of Versailles

Treaty signed in 1919 ending World War I; it imposed harsh terms on Germany, created several territorial mandates, and set up the League of Nations

Irreconcilables

This faction in the U. S. Senate would not accept the League of Nations or the notion of collective security in any form

Reservationists

Republicans who wanted no part with the League of Nations unless there were some changes. They were a burden to the vote on the League of Nations and had a part in its failure to pass

Henry Cabot Lodge

Prominent Republican senator from Massachusetts and chair of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, who led congressional opposition to Article 10 of the League of Nations

The Big Four

Italy, France, England, and the U.S. 4 powers who met at Versallies to discuss peace

League of Nations

A world organization proposed by President Wilson and created by the Versailles peace conference; it worked to promote peace and international cooperation

Muller v. Oregon

Supreme Court case in 1908, upholding an Oregon law that limited the hours of employment for women

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