(Freud) This part of the mental apparatus appears during the earliest stages of infancy. It is initially responsible for the discharge of tension or discomfort via motor pathways. These pathways could include blinking, pooping, etc.
(Freud) This is an innate process that arises when the Reflex Apparatus (its initial form) fails. If a baby realizes that it cannot help ease its own discomfort by some motor pathway, it cries out. The resulting object given to the baby allows it to develop an image of the thing that satisfies a particular need (forming a memory image of a bottle, blanket, diaper, etc.). This process belongs to the Id.
(Freud) This is ________ that never comes to one's conscious mind. It is essentially instinctive, and might include things like incest taboos, etc. Coming into contact with one of the things/ideas that has been ________ by this process causes immediate feelings of disgust.
This is a defense mechanism (subconscious), that comes into one's awareness when he/she projects some subconscious feeling/emotion onto something external. Ex: instead of accepting the fact that one dislikes something, one might project these feelings onto another person. Imposing of internalized concepts or images onto external objects or people.
(Freud) this is the re-channeling of energy from one object to another. The source and the aim are the same, but the object changes. For example, one who becomes angry and desires to hit the person whom they are angry at might instead resort to using curse words.
(Freud) This is displacement based on a higher cultural goal. For example, one might take negative energy and apply it to a particular art form.
(Freud) In this process of the Ego, one discovers/produces the desired object through reasoning. This is essentially a development of cognitive abilities. It produces four things: 1.) growth in perception (one can distinguish/discriminate between objects), 2.) improved memory ( the more we are exposed to, the more our ego and memory improve), 3.) sharper judgment (allowing one to better control his/her Id), and 4.) increased dexterity (muscles and motor skills develop, allowing one to figure out physical actions/spatial relationships)
(Freud) This is somewhat similar to fixation, though this is more like a "mid-life crisis." That is, an older man might become unsatisfied with his life and respond by buying a sports car and getting a younger girlfriend.
(Freud) This is the life energy that drives one's actions. It pushes a person forward. It is often seen as purely sexual energy, because sexual energy is the strongest of the human drives.
(Jung) These are memories/ideas/feelings that are clustered together. These can be, but are not always necessarily, by products of traumatic experiences (ex. an abuse victim associates all leather products with pain, as they were beaten with a leather belt). These clusters are "little beings" within a person that can control how that particular person acts/reacts to world experiences. They consist of two components: the psychic representations, and the distinctive feelings tagged to those feelings/emotions. Because Jung concluded that these clusters were not all by products of trauma, he began to think that many of them must be innate, archetypical collections of ideas. This led to his development of the theory of a Collective Unconscious.
(Freud) This is an urging force. These are restrained by an anti-cathex(s) in the process of Repression. This action essentially causes a mental block.
(Jung) In this, one's anima/animus can overpower the outward face and flip it. This is Jung's explanation as to why people are homosexual.
Also known as "talk therapy," both Freud and Jung used this particular psychological method in examining patients. In this, through the examination of things like dreams, words which represent/signify other ideas are closely analyzed in terms of the person to which they belong. This is also the process in which patients are asked to say the first word that comes into their head in response to another word (as unconsciously as possible). It is essentially the study of mental "connections" with different words.
This is what drives the Ego (opposed to the Pleasure Principle, which drives the Id). This drives the external conscious, helping it determine what is needed to survive, thrive, and be happy. (Ex. the relationship that develops between Valentin and Molina in place of the relationship that Valentin desires with Marta). It doesn't just deal with "what is available," but also with the possible consequences of a situation.
(Freud) This idea states that whenever ripples or waves of "unpleasure" arise in the mind, one's Id desires to be rid of them so that it may again reach a state of quiescence.
(Freud) This develops once one has been punished for some act deemed inappropriate. This is essentially the developing perception of what is good, ideal, or moral.
(Freud) [Also known as "Over determination" and "Fusion of Instincts"] This is the idea that there is a fusion in the process of selecting a satisfactory action/object in which the psyche attempts to group particular desires in order to achieve a state of quiescence more quickly. (Ex. a person with a desire for energy release, adoration, competition might become a football player in order to deal with all these desires at once).
(Freud) In this type of _________, a dangerous memory, idea, or perception is , mentally blocked in order to prevent any possible motor discharge. This is only caused by extremely traumatizing experiences such as sexual abuse (usually early in life), near death experiences, etc.
(Freud) This is the idea that things experienced during one's day will emerge and manifest in one's dreams. Latent material that comes out of one's unconscious will also appear in such dreams.
(Jung) This is a primordial image or design--things that came at the beginning. The idea of such universals goes back as far as Plato. These are unseen, yet they are very much present in humans. These are realities/ideas that are inborn within all people, but these do not become fleshed out until one comes into contact with life experiences. The Collective Unconscious is the reservoir of these __________s.
(Jung) This is the process by which one's conscious becomes differentiated. Jung believed that the more ________ed a person's personality is, the more open they will be to new ideas and ways of doing things.
Four Mental Functions
(Jung) Outlined in Jung's pivotal work, Psychological Types, these are one's four primary mental functions. They are: intuition, thinking, sensing, and feeling. Any of these four can be one's dominant function. These functions are modified by one of the two main attitude types. What happens to a person goes through certain filters, and depending on a person's dominant mental function, they will respond to such experiences in a particular way.
Two Mental Attitudes
(Jung) Outlined in Jung's pivotal work, Psychological Types, these two _______s modify the four mental functions. They are extraversion, and introversion. After experiences go through the filter of the dominant mental function, one can either externalize/internalize in the process of making sense of the particular experience--either introversion, or extroversion.
(Freud) These are direct by-products of moral anxiety. For example, a mother who hates her children might repress this abnormal feeling by taking on the role of an overly-loving mother. This is the process of masking a particular emotion by manifesting its opposite.
(Freud) One of the three types of anxiety, its source is the external world and the tangible threats that the world presents. A person can address this anxiety with either a "fight" or "flight" approach. Even if the person is beaten during their "fight," it can lead to positive development. However, if a person chooses "flight" and flees, they will continue to flee.
(Freud) This type of anxiety stems from one's Superego system--one's conscience, basically. This is most often the fear of punishment as a result of their desire(s) to go against some moral value instilled in him/her (from his/her family, society, culture, etc.). This can sometimes become fused with one's neurotic anxiety.
(Freud) In this type of anxiety, the source is an object choice of the Id. One becomes afraid of being overwhelmed by a particular compulsion to act/think in a way that is prohibited or harmful. This comes in three forms: free-floating apprehensiveness, phobias, and panic reactions.
(Freud) When the Ego is unable to adequately address or deal with a problem, it attempts to alleviate the anxiety by using this set of methods. These hinder the development of one's growth and development, as they do not actually solve the problem. These are mostly subconscious and the brain activates them immediately.These hide, distort, or deny reality.
(Jung) One of the four basic archetypes; this is the outward face/mask one displays to the world. It is known as the archetype of conformity; thus, it is one that has developed to increase one's chance of survival
(Jung) One of the four basic archetypes; this is the closest thing Jung developed to the idea of the Id. It is made up of things that have been cast off--things that are not connected to the male/female archetypes (it essentially acts as a magnet for unassigned elements of the psyche; dark elements). This is the darker, hidden, animalistic part of one's nature. It is the "nonconformist" in each person's psyche. This archetype explains why we are immediately averse to particular things. The closer __ _________ is to our personality's surface, the more readily one is able to understand such aversions and how to best deal with them. This portion of the psyche also maintains earthly wisdom, creativity, and spontaneity. Thus, again, a person whose _________ is close to their personality's surface will be more creative and spontaneous.
(Jung) One of the four basic archetypes; this is one's inward face. This is the part of one's psyche that is linked to the opposite sex, thus it is primarily responsible for how that person deals with the opposite sex (it is the primary driving force in attraction). The more one is able to incorporate elements of their anima/animus into their personality, the more one is able to understand why they are attracted/not attracted to a particular member of the opposite gender.
(Jung) One of the four basic archetypes, this is the most powerful archetype of all. This is the central, total, integrated personality. It is composed of the whole psyche--the shadow, persona, etc. As it is the archetype of unity, it organizes all elements of a person's psyche somewhat like the organization of the Solar System.
(Freud) This is the instinctual, primal, animalistic, and deepest part of one's personality. It's primary aim is to discharge any excitation/tenseness as quickly as possible in order to reach a state of quiescence. It does not think; thus, it is not rational and only wants. It is the energy source of all desires. It never develops morally (So, the deepest depths of one's personality never develop morally).
(Freud) The "executive branch" of the personality. It governs both the Id, and to some extent the Superego. It is responsible for the development of relations/associations made between the internal and external world. It can tolerate both pain and discomfort. It can also be patient and function rationally. The stronger this aspect of one's personality becomes, the stronger one's patience and rationality.
(Freud) This is the part of the personality that is governed by what one's society/family/culture deems morally correct. Like the Id, it is not driven by reality (the "morals" that have been instilled might not actually be the right ones). Tremendous guilt can occur if one feels that he/she has deviated from these instilled values.
(Freud) This part of the instinctual system is the instinct (bodily need) that must be satisfied
(Freud) This part of the instinctual system is the goal to relieve the tension (the ultimate aim is always to achieve a state of quiescence)
(Freud) This part of the instinctual system is the particular means by which one chooses to relieve the tension. This is the most flexible of all the components of the desire/satisfaction quest. This can be any number of things, as multiple things (ex. ice cream vs. yogurt) can satisfy the desire in a similar fashion.
(Freud) This is the amount of urging energy that pushes forth in a person's conscious at a particular time. This can be quite strong (ex. if one has not eaten in days and would, thus, eat just about anything), or weak (ex. if one has just eaten and the drive to continue eating is relatively low).
(Freud) In this type of identification, one looks to something similar to oneself in order to find qualities to incorporate into his/her personality. Males typically look to other males and females tend to look to other females in this process. This process also explains why people surround themselves with those who are "like-minded" with them.
Aggressor Rules Identification
(Freud) This is the type of identification by which one incorporates rules, prohibitions, ideas, or concepts not of their own in order to avoid punishment or embarrassment. This can be a result of fear of punishment at the hands of a kidnapper, gov't, society, one's family, etc. This process explain's why some people who have been kidnapped resist being taken away from their kidnappers.
Goal Orientation Identification
(Freud) In this type of identification, one models himself/herself after one who has obtained mutually desirable goals (goals which the person in question has not yet attained, but hopes to). Through this process, one either consciously or unconsciously emulates those whom they admire.
Object Loss Identificiation
(Freud) This type of identification is a by product of personal loss. With this loss, one desires to again possess what he/she has lost. For example, if a daughter loses her mother, she may begin to emulate her mother in order to retain some part of her mother's essence.
(Freud) This is a "blocking force." It "blocks"/nullifies a cathex--thus creating a mental block. This can be activated in the process of repression (when a situation is so stressful that neither a fight nor flight response can be made), or in any instance in which a compulsion needs to be checked for practical purpose.
Jung's Transcendant Function
a psychological function which refers to the union of conscious and unconscious contents. This allows the two complementary kinds of attitudes or skills to blend together and become one. (anima/mus and persona, etc.).
An idea of Jung's, this is the mystical, inexplicable, and terrifying experience of encountering the deity or divinity. Essentially, a direct encounter with "God."
Jung's response to the Christian notion of the Trinity; this consists of a fourth element in addition to the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit--Satan. The implication of Quaternality is that God is not solely positive; there are also elements of darkness and sin. This notion is further backed by the idea that Satan, created from God, is evil and man, also created in God's form, harbors the potential for evil and sin.
As a Jungian concept, this is the extraordinary power that emanates from a human being, object, action, event, or a supernation being/spirit. This is also the ability to produce magic and to heal. Jung believed that certain items, "power objects," were a source of such power (for cultures around the world). In a more religious sense, this refers to the power felt within or around a person; this can be particularly intense and associated with a feeling of wellbeing.
A type of typical dream, this is somewhat like a healing silence dream. This is typically a very comfortable dream in which the dreamer is able to transcend the muck and mire of everyday life.
A type of typical dream, in this, the dreamer suddenly begins to plummet. In such a dream, the dreamer's psyche is relaying that the dreamer is completely over his head. This can also be positive, in that it can relay to the dreamer that things are falling into place.
Naked Realization Dream
A type of typical dream, in such a dream the dreamer is usually on his way to an important event and, once arriving, realizes that he is naked or semi-naked. These types of dreams can either tell the dreamer that he is setting himself up for personal humiliation or that the dreamer should not worry about being humiliated.
A type of typical dream, this is solely an anxiety dream. Students who have these dreams typically dream about having pop tests when they are unprepared, and adults who have them typically dream that they lack some key object needed for the execution of an event.
A type of typical dream, in this dream the dreamer will, say, need to use the restroom but comes to find that the line is several miles long. This type of dream suggests that the dreamer has procrastinated on an issue to the point where there is an impending problem
A type of typical dream, this dream is usually a message to the psyche that the dreamer feels trapped or constrained to such a degree that the dreamer feels imprisoned. This type of dream can often be related to one's stifled creativity or sexuality. People who are in abusive dreams also have this type of dream frequently.
A type of typical dream, in this dream the dreamer is being pursued by a human or supernatural pursuer. This dream usually suggests that the dreamer feels helpless in dealing with some impending force.
Losing Hair/Teeth Dream
A type of typical dream, in this dream the dreamer loses either his hair, teeth, or both. This type of dream is very significant as the teeth are crucial in eating, speech, sex, etc. Thus, such a dream can imply that the dreamer is (or feels like he is) losing any of these abilities, or that some crucial aspect of the dreamer's life is missing.
Being Late/Missing an Event Dream
A type of common dream, in this dream the dreamer's car might be broken, or any other means of transportation rendered useless. This dream usually implies that the dreamer feels that he is without the ability or freedom to do or go. Such a dream can also imply that the dreamer feels that he is either letting himself or others down.
A type of typical dream, in such a dream the dreamer is put in touch with his deeper, more personal nature. One might dream about a vulture, horse, bear, etc. The animal dreamed about often mirrors how the dreamer views himself.
A type of typical dream, this often has to do with the theme of creation. This type of dream often suggests that the dreamer is afraid of following through with a particular creative venture.
A type of unusual dream, this is a dream that is significant or insignificant in its form that actually occurs at some later point in one's waking life. (Jung said that the origin of dreams is unknown to man. We may know what is, basically, going on, but aside from that we know little of their origin. They can contain information from our past, present, and future).
Visitation Apparition Dream
A type of unusual dream, in this dream the dreamer is asleep or process of going asleep and feels as though he has been awakened. The spirit of someone who he knows or doesn't know then appears.
A type of unusual dream, this is a dream in which, somewhat like a visitation, the dreamer seems to be awake but actually knows he is asleep.
Disembodied Voice Dream
A type of unusual dream, in such a dream there is no image; the dreamer only hears his name called. The person then immediately wakes up.
A type of unusual dream, in this type of dream the dreamer usually feels that his body is involved. When this occurs when one is in a relationship, this is usually a sign or signal; one should ask himself where this particular type of passion/arousal, or where it needs to happen/is not yet happening. (Jung stated that this type of dream can be numinous, and connected with the collective unconscious. If such a dream occurs, it should be viewed as a very spiritual dream and experience).
Cry of Silence Dream
A type of unusual dream, in this type of dream the dreamer is in complete darkness and total silence. Because the dreamer is in such a situation, most people--when experiencing a dream--immediately wake up. One can also respond to such a dream with a feeling of absolute wellbeing.
Speaking in Tongues Dream
A type of unusual dream, in this type of dream the dreamer hears or speaks words that he might not know in his waking life. Things spoken in these dreams can actually be a code for things important to the dreamer's waking life. These types of dreams might suggest to the dreamer that he needs to open himself up to people/things he doesn't understand
A type of unusual dream, in this type of dream the dreamer is not truly asleep and not truly awake. This dream takes places when one is in a hypnagogic state. The dreamer can pick up on vivid images, things that can assist in solving problems, etc. (One foot in the brook, the other out). If the dreamer is stressed, he will envision threats, nightmarish imagery, etc.
Jung's key questions for understanding the human personality
1.) what are the constituents and how do they interact?, 2.) what are the sources of energy that activate the personality, and how are they distributed, 3.) how does the personality originate, and what changes take place in it throughout the life of an individual?
A theory of Jung's, this refers to the meaningful coincidence or equivalence of a psychic/physical state or even which have no causal relationship to one another. For example, the fact that humans all over the world developed the same symbols for the same objects. This can also be represented in similar or identical dreams occurring in different people in disparate places. Jung saw this as a representation of the Over-Soul, or God.