2nd Industrial Revolution
-Started in 1860's with Dr. Bessemer and the creation of steel
-R: Railroads were costly, unfair, and created ghost towns out of places they did not run through.
-O: Oil was used for fuel in lamps but mostly for combustion engines
-S: Steel was used to create railroads and engines for trains, and skyscrapers and elevators to use in those buildings.
-E: Electricity was starting to be used for lights and power for skyscrapers and engines. The introduction of artificial light (not sunlight) enabled skyscrapers to have rooms without windows in the center of the structure.
-The amount of farmers decreases
-Most freedmen are tenants or sharecroppers.
-The Union Pacific Company built from East to West and its primary workers were Irish immigrants
-The Central Pacific Company built West to East and its primary workers were Chinese immigrants
-Goals: Open trade to the East and connect the continent
-Effects: standard gauge, spurred industry, unification, selling of raw goods, Western growth, growth of cities, attracts immigrants, creation of time zones, and NATIVE AMERICANS pushed to reservations and BUFFALO are eradicated.
Age of Mechanization/ Invention
-iron found in Mesabi Range acquired in Minnesota
-lots of immigration labor
-Eli Whitney creates interchangeable parts
-Alexander Graham Bell- invents telephone, which promotes communication and creates jobs for women
-Thomas Edison- Invents electric light bulb
Age of Steel
-Dr. Bessemer creates steel in the 1850s
-Andrew Carnegie is an immigrant that worked his way up to own Carnegie Steel, a huge business
-Carnegie sells Carnegie Steel to JP Morgan for 400 million dollars in cash
Age of Banking
-JP Morgan is the "banker's banker"
-Bailed out the U.S. in the Panic of 1873
-Bought Carnegie Steel and made it into the United States Steel Corporation, the first billion dollar company
Age of Oil
-John D. Rockefeller controls 95% of all U.S. oil
-Richest man in the country
-Believed in survival of the fittest and used horizontal integration
Age of Meat
-Railroads are essential for transporting cows for slaughter
-Refrigeration makes meat transporting easier--can kill cows on site and not load them by the thousands onto trains.
-Joseph Glidden invented barb wire fences to contain longhorns
Age of the Trusts (monopoly)
-Vertical Integration: Own all the steps from procuring of resources to finished products (Andrew Carnegie)
-Horizontal Integration: Own all the businesses so there is no competition (John D. Rockefeller)
-Interlocking Directorate: Get all the companies in the same industry to act as one so there is no competition (JP Morgan)
PATH OF EMPIRE
Turning to International Affairs
-we need a bigger market to sell our agricultural and industrial goods
-belief: Expand or Explode
-23 million immigrants during the Gilded Age
-Newspapers influence the public
-churches reach out through missionaries
-New teachings of Darwinism where only the biggest and strongest survive.
-other countries are expanding and it's contagious
-New literature promotes expansion (Kipling, Josiah Strong, Alfred Thayer)
Newspapers / Yellow Journalism
-Joseph Pulitzer and William Hearst both own major NY newspapers
-Both want The Yellow Kid, a comic, in their paper to attract readers
-The only way to get TYK is to pay the owner a lot of $$$
-Create exaggerated headlines just to get people to buy the paper, but the stories really aren't all that. This is called Yellow Journalism.
-"big sister" policy towards latin america
-"We know what's best so you'd better do what we say."
Venezuela and British Guyana
-Venezuela asks America to arbitrate
-Gets more complicated when gold is discovered between the countries
-Britain annoyed but doesn't argue because they are fighting the Boer War and Kaiser Wilhelm in Germany is "saber rattling," and they cannot take him on without an ally (potentially us).
-Secretary of State Richard Olney declares that most of the disputed land goes to Britain
-Venezuela annoyed with "big sister"
-Queen Lilioukalani rules Hawaii and is loved by her people
-American propaganda is saying that she is a tyrant
-Sanford Dole creates and uprising and overthrows the Queen
-Says Hawaii is ready for annexation
-President Cleveland finds out that Hawaii never wanted a revolution so he doesn't annex it
-Huge sugar industry in Cuba (investment)
-in Cuba, commoners are fighting Spaniards
-we are worried revolution will spread to the U.S. because we have unhappy laborers here too
-Yellow Journalism involves our citizens
Road to War with Spain
-1898: Cuban riots continue
-We send Battleship Maine over to intimidate Spain under the pretense of a "friendly visit"
-Spanish minister writes back to Spain that the U.S. is not to be feared and Cuba is under control
-The Maine is destroyed in Spain. We think it was a bombing, and the Spanish think it was an accident on the ship.
-Yellow Journalism creates anger toward Spain
-Declare war on April 11, 1898
-If we go to war with Spain, we will not take Cuba.
-Secures Cuban independence
-our 31k army vs. their 200k in Cuba alone
-our navy is small but we have steel ships
-soldiers have to wear wool in the tropical summer
-Europe supports Spain except Britain supports us because they need us as an ally.
Theodore Roosevelt and the Span-Am War
-resents that his father didn't fight in the Civil War
-escalates war in Cuba by invading and annexing Manila by joint resolution
-He resigns but the military won't take him
-Forms the Rough Riders, a volunteer army led by Leonard Wood
-Roosevelt commanded men to take El Caney and San Juan Hills
-Becomes a hero
End of Span-Am War /
Peace Treaty of Paris
-Aug. 12. 1898: Declared Armistice
-Many more have died of disease than fighting
-Peace Treaty of Paris 1898 :
-Cuba is free from Spain and we do not annex it
-We do take Puerto Rico and Guam
-Pay $20 million for the Philippines because we don't want European powers to have it
Puerto Rico: Foraker Act
-Established civilian government in Puerto Rico and U.S. citizenship for the people
-Puerto Rico has our flag but not our constitution
Puerto Rico: Platt Amendments:
-Military rule to clean up after war
-We intervene if PR goes into debt
-We own a part: Guantanamo Bay