What were the earliest reforms of the Ottoman Empire?
1. Standardized taxation
2. Creation of military style units
3. Controlling provincial governors
4. Standardization of land ownership or tenure
Who were the most persistent opponents of early Ottoman reform?
How did Serbia become independent of the Ottoman Empire in 1805?
Russian threats prevented the Ottomans from disarming the Siberians following their revolt.
Why did the Ulama oppose Selim III's reform?
They were afraid of secularization of law and taxation.
Why was the fez adopted by the ottomans military and city officials?
European style helmet and hats made it difficult to pray as Muslims did several times a day. The fez didn't have a brim.
The Tanzimat reforms ______ the influence of women.
Who were the allies of the Ottoman Empire in the war?
Britain, France, and Sardinia-Piedmont
Who sided with Russia in the war?
No other countries assisted Russia.
What was the importance of the Crimean War?
It marked the transition from traditional to modern warfare. New weapons like the breech loading rifle were more accurate and caused a greater loss in life.
Socially dominated by nobles whose country estates were worked by un-free ____ Russia had almost no ______.
serfs; middle class
How did the Russian government view industrialization?
They had limited interest. They were suspicious of Western ideas, especially anything smacking of liberalism, socialism, or revolution. Nicholas feared the spread of literacy and modern education. Rather than running the risk of allowing the development of a middle class and a working class that may challenge its control, Nicholas I kept the peasants in serfdom and preferred to import most industrial goods and pay for them with exports of grain and timber.
List 4 ways that the modernization of Russia was accomplished more smoothly than the in Ottoman Empire.
1. Russia had been in cultural contact with Western Europe since the time of Peter the Great.
2. Members of the Russian court knew Western languages.
3. The tsars employed officials and advisers from Western countries.
4. Peter had also enlisted the well-educated Ukrainian clerics who headed the Russian Orthodox Church to help spread a Western spirit of education.
During Alex there was great intellectual flowering. Name two of the writers that symbolize this.
Feodor Dostoyevsky and Leo Tolstoy.
Why did the British start the illicit trade of opium with china?
It made them enormous fortunes.
What gave the British an advantage on the opium war?
They excelled at sea and had better rifles
What were the results of the Treaty of Nanking?
In 1842, the terms of the Treaty of Nanking (the British name for Nan-jing) dismantled the old Canton system. The number of treaty ports cities opened to foreign residents increased from one (Canton) to five (Canton, Xiamen, Fuzhou, Ningbo, and Shanghai ̊), and the island of Hong Kong became a permanent British colony. British residents in China gained extraterritorial rights. The Qing government agreed to set a low tariff of 5 percent on imports and to pay Britain an indemnity of 21 million ounces of silver as a penalty for having started the war. A supplementary treaty the following year guaranteed most-favored-nation status to Britain; any privileges that China granted to another country would be automatically extended to Britain as well. This provision effectively prevented the colonization of China, because giving land to one country would have necessitated giving it to all. With each round of treaties came a new round of privileges for foreigners.
How were women in the Taiping rebellion organized?
They segregated men and women and organized them into work and military teams. Women were forbidden to bind their feet (the Hakkas had never practiced foot-binding) and participated fully in farming and labor. Brigades of women soldiers took to the field against.
The Taiping rebellion was the world's bloodiest ______ _____ and the greatest armed conflict before the 20th century.
What caused the creation of the Zulu Kingdom?
Although Shaka ruled for a little more than a decade he succeeded in creating a new ______ identity as well as a new kingdom.
The _______ ________ was the largest state in West Africa since the fall of Songhai in the sixteenth century.
What did Sokoto's leaders do with captains from the jihad they fought?
They sold them to the slave trade.
Why did revenues in Egypt increase thirty-fold and exports double during Ismail's reign?
He placed even more emphasis on westernizing largely because of the huge increase in cotton exports during the American civil war.
What ended Egypt's prosperity?
When the market for cotton collapsed after American civil war.
Name 4 ways that European explorers peacefully intruded into Africa.
Small expeditions of adventurous explorers, using private funds, exploring rivers, missionaries.
Who were David Livingstone and Henry Stanley?
David Livingstone- Scottish missionary who organized modest treks through southern and central Africa, primary goal was to scout out locations for Christian missions.
Henry Stanley- welsh-American journalist in search of the lost missionary descended the Congo River to its mouth.
What brought an end to the slave trade?
Slave revolt in Saint Dominique, religious reformers.
What was the most successful export from West Africa after the slave trade ended?
Which African nation was founded by free black Americans?
Why were Eastern African states of this period referred to as "secondary empires"?
They depended on Western demand for ivory and other goods and on Western manufacturers for weapons.
The people of _____ Asia felt the impact of European commercial, cultural and colonial expansion more immediately and profoundly than did the people of _____.
The Bombay Presidency was territory was territory taken over by the East Indian Company after defeating the __________.
maratha confederation and social reform
The EIC transformed the Indian economy by expanding agriculture production and decreasing industrial output.
The Sepoy Rebellion was a turning point in modern India in that the _____ government ruled india directly from this point on.
The Indian National Congress promoted ______ among the country's many religious and ethnic groups.
Why was Cape Colony at the tip of Africa valuable to the British?
Strategic importance as a supply station for ships going between Britain and India.
Historians usually portray Britain as a reluctant empire builder during this period, even though they added several dozen colonies to the twenty-six they already had. Why then were they expanding their empire during this period?
In order to gain ports for trading purposes.
What technological innovation increased global commercial expansion during the nineteenth century? Why did it?
Clipper ships that were much bigger, they were much faster and could carry more goods.
Who were the first permanent British settlers in Australia?
736 convicts exiled from British prisons.
Australia and New Zealand were among the first states in the world to do what?
Grant women the right to vote.
List the areas that new workers came from after the end of slavery created the need for a new labor source.
india, China, Africa, Pacific Islands.
Why did most indentured servants leave their homes?
To improve social and economic conditions.
How was Japan the exception in railroad building and construction?
Most railways were built by European or American engineers with equipment from the West, but Japan built their own with Japanese engineers who were trained at school in Japan.
How was ocean shipping transformed? (Several sentences)
New innovations and materials made the ships faster and the size increased from 200 tons in 1850 to 7,500 in 1900. These developments included the use of iron (and then steel) for hulls, propellers, and more efficient engines. The number of ships increased. The shipping lines were new organizations or corporations developed to run the global process. They offered fast, punctual and reliable service on a fixed schedule. Passengers, mail and perishable freight traveled on scheduled liners. To control their ships, shipping companies used submarine telegraph cables laid on the ocean floor.
What created the "annihilation of time and space?"
The submarine telegraphs cables and the faster pace of shipping and traveling.
Which areas of the world were hurt by the innovations of the chemical dye industry?
Tropical areas such as India that grew indigo.
Who was Michael Faraday and what innovation is he associated with?
Michael Faraday was an Englishman who showed that the motion of copper sire through a magnetic field induced an electric current in the wire. Based on his discovery, inventors in the 1870s devised efficient generators that turned mechanical energy into electric current. (Dynamo)
What was the most prominent early use of electric current in?
Early use of electric current was used in lighting. Thomas Edison developed an incandescent lamp well suited to lighting small rooms.
Which nation controlled the majority of the world's trade and finances by 1900?
Great Britain controlled the majority of the world's trade and finances by 1900.
Name 3 reasons for the mass migration of this period.
There were many reasons for mass migration of this period: the Irish famine of 1847-1848; the persecution of Jews in Russia; poverty and population growth in Italy, Spain, Poland and Scandinavia; and the cultural ties between Great Britain and English-speaking countries overseas.
Why did the number of Europeans and their descendants overseas jump so dramatically?
There was a drop in the death rate.
What new services were provided by municipal governments?
New services that showed care and support by municipal governments included police and fire protection, garbage removal, and health inspectors to name a few.
Victorian morality dictated that men and women belong in ________.
The typewriter and telephone were seen by businesses as the ideal tools to be used by ________.
How did working class women earn money to support their families?
They worked in factories and as domestic servants in middle and upper class families' households. They took in piecework like sewing and making hats, lace or gloves. They did other people laundry and took in borders to help support their families.
Marx and Socialism-Karl Marx wrote the Communist Manifesto with Friedrich Engels and wrote Das Capital. He was concerned with the plight of workers who he called the proletariat and blamed their hard life of the bourgeoisie middle class factory owners. He talked of the haves and have not's over the course of history and their exploitation.
Know the definition of Socialism-A political ideology that originated in Europe in the 1830s. Socialists advocated government protection of workers from exploitation by property owners and government ownership of industries.
What was surplus value?
Marx said that surplus value is the difference between wages and the value of goods. Factory owners call that a profit and they claimed that for themselves. Marx thought more should go to the people whose labor created the surplus value.
According to the book, what was the most influential idea of the 19th century?
Nationalism was the most influential idea of the nineteenth century.
Who was Giuseppe Mazzini?
Giuseppe Mazzini was an Italian who was the most famous nationalist of the early nineteenth century. He started a group known as Young Italy and wrote a newspaper known as Risorgimento. He stood for nationhood of Italy and against tyrants everywhere.
How did Otto von Bismarck plan to unite most German-speaking people into a single state?
His plan to unite most German-speaking people into a single state focused on using industry and nationalism.
What was an important point of dispute between France and Germany?
In order to unify Germany Bismarck caused a war between France and the German states known as the Franco Prussian War. Once they were defeated the French had to give up the territory of Alsace and Lorraine which was a mineral rich area between France and the new nation of Germany.
Who demanded that Japan open its ports for refueling and trade?
Commodore Matthew Perry and the Americans demanded Japan end their isolation and open their ports to refueling and trade.
How did the leaders of Meiji Japan plan to remain free from Western imperialism?
The leaders of Meiji Japan planned to become a world class industrial power without the help of the West to stay free of Western imperialism.
Why didn't nationalism unify Russia and Austria-Hungary?
Both Russia and Austria-Hungary were empires that included many ethnic and language groups. It was harder to produce the feeling of one people or nation with that ethnic makeup.
What impact did the Russo-Japanese War have on Russia?
The popular revolt of 1905 that forced the creation of a Duma and a new constitution on Russia was a direct result of the Russo-Japanese War.
What was the "self-strengthening movement" in China?
The "self-strengthening movement' was the early twentieth century Chinese plan for reform.
What was the Boxer Uprising?
The Boxer Uprising was a series of riots that was encouraged by Chinese officials against foreign presence. Foreign missionaries, merchants and diplomats were attacked and the diplomatic embassies put under siege. European governments and the United States, and Japan sent troops and liberated their countrymen. The uprising was put down.
How was the Suez Canal a success story, but not in the way the Egyptians wanted it to be?
The original intent was to demonstrate the cooperation between peoples and to demonstrate that Egypt was a great power. But as a result of building the canal it assisted imperialism by creating lower shipping costs, stimulating shipping and construction of steamships for those countries with overseas trade.
What are Historians referring to when they use the term New Imperialism?
When historians refer to New Imperialism they are referring to the West's use of industrial technology to impose its will on the nonindustrial world.
What characterized New Imperialism?
New Imperialism was characterized by rapid and unprecedented annexation of territory by Western powers.
What were the cultural motives of the New Imperialism?
The cultural motives for the New Imperialism included the desire to spread Christianity and to abolish slavery. They wanted to end oppressive treatment of women, like sati. They also claimed to want to civilize people of the colonies by bringing them Western education, medicine and customs.
What job opportunities were opened to women because of colonies?
Job opportunities for women included work as missionaries, teachers and nurses.
What was the most harmful aspect of the Western sense of cultural superiority?
The most harmful aspect of the Western sense of cultural superiority was the racist ideas that considered non-Europeans as inferior.
What were the economic motives of imperialism?
1. European businesses wanting to look for new opportunities in Asia and Africa.
2. Europeans needed to protect their home markets.
3. European merchants needing to secure new markets for their goods.
4. European industrialization created a high demand for raw materials.
What was one of the greatest barriers to the European invasion of inland Africa?
One of the greatest barriers to European invasion of inland Africa was problems with high incidents of Malaria.
As European firearms improved, the ____ gap widened.
What were colonies that maintained their own traditional governments with Europeans as advisors called?
The colonies that maintained their own traditional governments with European advisors were known as Protectorates.
One important factor in the decision to grant colonies home rule or autonomy was the presence of or absence of _____ settlers.
How was Belgian colonialism different than the rest of Europe?
Belgian colonialism was very different because King Leopold annexed the Congo as his personal colony, not for the Belgian state.
Why did the British want to expand into southern Africa?
The British wanted to expand into southern Africa because diamonds and gold were found there.
What was the purpose of South Africa's 1913 Native Land Act?
The Native Land Act was supposed to forbid Africans from owning land and keep Africans on reservations.
Where was the most successful African resistance against Europeans?
The most successful resistance in Africa was in Ethiopia.
How did the flood of Christian missionaries impact Islam?
With the flood of Christian missionaries, Islam spread even farther than before.
What was the last independent state in Southeast Asia in the late nineteenth century?
Siam was the last independent state in Southeast Asia in the late nineteenth century.
What major cash crop did the Europeans want from Southeast Asia and Indonesia?
Europeans wanted rubber as a major cash crop from Southeast Asia and Indonesia.
Why did the United States annex Hawaii?
Hawaii lay in a strategic position to the United States which led to their annexation.
What were the reasons that Europe didn't take formal colonies in Latin America?
European nations didn't make Latin American countries formal colonies because of the Monroe Doctrine issued by the United States. They found themselves overextended in Africa and Asia. Latin American governments were somewhat cooperative and Latin Americans were willing to fight in order to resist an invasion.
What was the result of the Spanish American War?
The United States purchased the Philippines, took Puerto Rico, controlled Cuba through the Platt Amendment and acquired or took Guam as a result of the Spanish American War.
What did the United States support so that they could build the Panama Canal?
Colombia would not let the United States build the Panama Canal. So the United States supported Panamanian rebellion against Colombia by giving the rebels guns and other weapons.
Free trade imperialism- .(Economic dominance of a weaker country by a more powerful one, while maintaining the legal independence of the weaker state. In the late nineteenth century free-trade imperialism characterized the relations between Latin American republics on the one hand and Great Britain and the U.S. on the other.