Chapter 21: Kingdom Fungi

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21 terms · Vocabulary terms from Chapter 21 of Prentice Hall Biology. This chapter covers the kingdom of fungi, their characteristics, classification, and ecology.

chitin

complex carbohydrate that makes up the cell walls of fungi; also found in the external skeletons of arthropods

hypha

tiny filament that makes up a multicellular fungus or a water mold

mycelium

many hyphae tangled together into a thick mass; comprises the bodies of multicellular fungi

fruiting body

slender reproductive structure that produces spores and is found in some funguslike protists; reproductive structure of fungus that develops from a mycelium

sporangium

structure in ferns and some fungi that contains spores

sporangiophore

specialized hyphae where sporangia are found

zygospore

resting spore that contains zygotes formed during the sexual phase of a mold's life cycle

rhizoid

in fungi, a rootlike hypha that penetrates the surface of an object; in mosses, a long thin cell that anchors the moss to the ground and absorbs water and minerals from the surrounding soil

stolon

in fungi, a stemlike hypha that runs along the surface of an object; in plants, a long, trailing stem that produces roots when it touches the ground

gametangium

gamete-producing structure found in black bread mold

conidium

tiny fungal spore that forms at the tips of specialized hyphae in ascomycetes

ascus

stucuture within the fruiting body of an ascomycete in which two nuclei of different mating types fuse

ascospore

haploid spore produced within the ascus of ascomycetes

budding

asexual process by which yeasts increase in number; process of attaching a bud to a plant to produce a new branch

basidium

spore-bearing structure of a basidiomycete

basidiospore

spore in basidiomycetes that germinates to produce haploid primary mycelia

ascomycete

member of the fungal phylum Ascomycota, commonly called sac fungus; name comes from the saclike structure in which the spores develop

basidiomycete

member of the fungal phylum Basidiomycota, commonly called club fungus; name comes from the club-like shape of the basidium

saprobe

organism that obtains food from decaying organic matter

lichen

symbiotic association between a fungus and a photosynthetic organism

mycorrhiza

symbiotic association of plant roots and fungi

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