Parts of the respiratory system
Upper RS: Nose, Pharynx
Lower RS: Larynx, Trachea, Bronchii and Lungs
Conducting portions: Pharynx, Nose, Bronchii, Larynx
Respiratory Portions: Lungs, Aveoli
warming, filtering, moistening
Internal part of nose
temperature regulation (warming the air), filtering the air with the coarse nose hairs
What does the mucus do in the nose?
It covers objects that get stuck on the coarse hairs. They harden, then get covered in mucus again until we get them out if we don't they begin to block our airways
External part of nose
Cartilage, skin, bone, sometimes hair, muscles, nostrils (extreme nares)
if one clogs you can still breathe out of the other (separates the nostrils)
entrance to the respiratory system
3 shelves, 2 are bone, 1 is cartilage and skin
Disturbs the air and temperature, help warming, filtering, olfaction and moistening
fancy word for throat
Function of pharynx
Passageway for air and food
secondary function: sound resignation
mucus membrane, cilia (help filter things that past the big hairs)
Three parts of Pharynx
Nasopharynx (top): 5 openings, 2 at the back of the nose (internal nares), 1 toward the mouth, 2 eustacion tubes (regulate pressure). Tonsils sit right below, filtering apparatus that traps bacteria
Oropharynx- plays dual role: digestive and respiratory
Laryngopharynx- respiratory and digestive
slaps shut to prevent food from going down your windpipe to make you choke
-folds viberate (talking)
- ventricular folds (false vocal cords)
- vocal folds (true VC)
- the greater the pressure the greater the volume
- the tightness of the vocal folds controls the pitch
What is different about male vocal cords?
The vocal cord is larger which gives them the lower voice
The larger males tend to have the deeper voices
-must be sturdy b/c if it collapses you will stop breathing
-5 inches long, 1 inch thick
-sits in front of the esophagus
3 layers of the trachea
1. Mucosa (mucus)- lined with cilia
2. Sub mucosa (basement membrane)
3. Hyaline Cartilage- gives it the toughness (also in growth plates)
How is the trachea arranged?
in semi-circular c-shaped rings
the bulk of the strong parts are in the front
Purpose of the trachea
firm, so it does not collapse
it is not a solid piece of cartilage, allows for flexibility
internal "fork in the road" where the bronchi separate from trachea. if anything touches it then the coughing reflex begins
First type of Bronchi
Primary- original branches shaped like trachea, nave cilia, covered in mucus.
-right bronchi: short, wider, more vertical
-left bronchi: taller, skinner, horizontal, more things go to the right side
Respiratory Bronchioles- gas exchange takes place
What decreases and eventually disappears once we get to bronchioles?
Cilia and cartilage
separated into right and left by the heart
Number of lobes in the right lung
Number of lobes in the left lung
Why do we have two lungs?
We have two just in case one stops working we can still breathe
very delicate, keeps inside from our view
Two layers of the plural membrane
1. Superficial: parietal
2. Inner most: visceral
plural cavity: plural fluid- lubricant reduce friction
where the plural cavity fills with air. puts too much pressure on the lungs, they cannot expand
blood gets into the plural cavity. prevents expanding, damage around the lungs
inflammation of plural membrane scrap each other
-millions of these tiny structures
-surrounded by capillaries
-taking oxygen into/away from the lungs (do ALL the gas exchange)
Types of Alveolar cells
Type 1: actually do the gas exchange
Type 2: secrete alveolar fluid onto Type 1 cells
How many of the Alveolar cells do we have in our lungs?
How thick are the alveolar cells?
1/2 a micrometer
Why do we have all the tiny air bubbles instead of one big air sac?
For surface area
inspiration and expiration
What physics law relates to the respiratory system?
reduce pressure in the air cavity and it sucks substance in (vacuum)
dome-shaped muscle at the bottom of the ribs. The diaphragm drops decreasing the pressure
What percentage of air is pulled in by the diaphragm?
pulls in 2 to 3 liters of air
normal/quiet: passive does not require energy- elastic recoil
speaking, singing, blowing out candles
your abdominal muscles and internal intercostals
the ease with which your lungs and your thoracic cavity can expland
How is a person's compliance normally?
Normally it's high
What can make compliance (breathing) difficult?
-fluid in your lungs
-scar tissue in your lungs
What is Tidal Volume
70% goes to the lungs, 30% goes to the anatomical dead space
Minute Volume Respiration
How much air you take in in a minute
Inspiratory Reserve Volume
Excess air that you can pull in in addition to our tidal volume
Expiratory Reserve Volume
Extra Air that you can exhale after tidal volume
After you exhale, it is what you have left over, prevents vacuum
Forced expiratory reserve volume
maximum air you can exhale after a max exhale
chronic inflammation disorder that results in the narrowing of the air ways
Signs of Asthma
weezing, coughing, difficulty breathing
Two main types of Asthma
Acute and Late
smooth muscle spasm, releases a lot of mucus
straight inflammation of the bronchioles. long term effect: fibrosis- tissue gets replaced by collagen. edema: accumulation of fluid pressure fills in your lungs.
Causes of Asthma
-sulfate based medicines
Alveolar walls disintegrate, end up with large air sacs, have to breathe in more air
Results of emphysema
barrel chest, any exercises leaves them breathless
Causes of emphysema
Long term exposure to irritants
2. industrial dust
3. air pollution
4. auto-immune disease
-there is treatment
What kills the TB bacteria?
The UV rays that go through shirt and skin
How does it spread
It is an airborne disease
How does it die
What does TB do
affects the plural membrane, replaces with scar tissue, severely reduces compliance
What people groups are diagnosed with TB normally?
-multifaceted disorder (liver and pancreas)
-genetic disorder, no cure
-few treatments, if they do work they stop eventually
How does Cystic Fibrosis effect your body?
-makes it difficult to breathe
-very thick mucus in air passages
-bad in the morning, can hardly breathe
rhythmic contraction of your diaphragm
the most contagious disease