An approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy.
Treatment involving psychological techniques; consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth.
Sigmund Freud's therapeutic technique. Freud believed the patients free associations, resistances, dreams, transferences--and the therapist's interpretations of them--released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight.
In psychoanalysis, the analyst's noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promotes insight.
In psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent).
Therapy deriving from psychoanalytic tradition that views individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences, and that seeks to enhance self-insight.
A variety of therapies that aim to improve psychological functioning by increasing the client's awareness of underlying motives and defenses.
A humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathetic environment to facilitate clients' growth.
Empathetic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Rogers' client centered therapy.
unconditional positive regard
A caring, accepting, nonjudgmental attitude, which Carl Rogers believed would help clients to develop self-awareness and self-acceptance.
Therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors.
A behavior therapy procedure that uses classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors; includes exposure therapies and aversive conditioning.
Behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization, that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actuality) to the things they fear and avoid.
A type of exposure therapy that associated a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias.
virtual reality exposure therapy
An anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to stimulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders, or public speaking.
A type of counterconditioning that associates and unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol).
An operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats.
Therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional interactions.
A popular integrative therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavioral therapy (changing behavior).
Therapy that treats the family as a system. Views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by, or directed at, other family members.
regression toward the mean
The tendency for extreme or unusual scores to fall back (regress) toward their average.
A procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies.
Clinical decision-making that integrates the best available research with clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferences.
Prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patient's nervous system.
The study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior.
Drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of severe thought disorder.
Involuntary movements of the facial muscles, tongue, and limbs; a possible neurotoxic side effect of long-term use of antipsychotic drugs that target certain dopamine receptors.
Drugs used to control anxiety and agitation.
Drugs used to treat depression; also increasingly prescribed for anxiety. Different types work by alternating the availability of various neurotransmitters.
ECT (electroconvulsive therapy)
A biochemical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient.
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)
The application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity.
Surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior.
A now-rare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. The procedure cut the nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain.
The personal strength that helps most people cope with stress and recover from adversity and even trauma.
In psychoanalysis, the analyst's noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight.