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Erythropoietin

hormone produced by the kidneys which stimulates production of red blood cells

glomerulus

ball-shaped collection of capillaries located in the in nephron

oliguria

scanty urine output

renin

enzyme produced by the kidneys aids in raising blood presure

peritubular capillaries

minute blood vessels that surround the nephron

urinary retention

inability to empty the bladder

urinary incontinence

inability to control urination

Wilm's tumor

a milignant tumor of the kidney occurring in childhood

renal column

tissue between the renal pyramids

renal cell carcinoma

a milignant tumor of the kidney occuring in adulthood

renal pyramids

triangular tissues within the medulla

renal pelvis

central collecting area for urine in the kidneys

Bowman's capsule

cup-shaped end of the renal tubule containing a glomerulus

glomerular filtration

substances that filter out of the blood

glomerulonephritis

inflammation of glomerulus of kidneys

nephrolithiasis

a condition of kidney stones

edema

a local or generalised condition in which the body tissues contain a excessive amounts of tissue fluid

renal tubules

1. proximal convoluted tubule 2. loop on Henle 3. distal convoluted tubule 4. collecting tubule

cortex

the outer layer of the kidneys

glycosuria

abnormal presence of sugar

proteinuria

protein in the urine

bilirubin

bile formed by the breakdown of hemoglobin, orange-yellow pigment

retrograde pyelogram

a radiographic procedure in which small-caliber catheters are passed through a cystoscope into the ureters to visualize the ureters and renal pelvis

hydronephrosis

distension of pelvis and calyces of the kidney caused by urine that cannot flow past an obstruction in a ureter

polycystic kidney disease

hereditary disorder of kidneys in which grapelike fluid-filled sacs or cysts, replace normal kidney tissue

polydipsia

excessive thirst

polyuria

excessive amounts of urine

malaise

a vague feeling of bodily weakness or discomfort

lethargy

the state or quality of being indifferent, apathetic, or sluggish

frequency

the number of repetition of any phenomenon within a fixed period of time such as the number of heartbeats per minute

specific gravity

the weight of a substance compared with equal volume of distilled water

anuria

the cessation of urine production

asymptomatic

without symptoms

hilum

the depression or pit of an organ where the vessels and nerves enter

palpable

detectable by touch

peritonitis

inflammation of the peritoneum

meatus

an opening or tunnel

dialysate

solution that contains water and electrolytes that passes through the artificial kidney to remove excess fluids and waste from the blood

dialysis

the process of removing waste products from the blood when the kidneys are unable to do so

azotemia

the presence of excessive amounts of waste products of metabolism in the blood caused by failure of the kidneys to remove urea from blood; is a characteristic of uremia

uremia

the presence of excessive amounts of urea and other nitrogenous waste products in the blood; aslo called azotemia

toxic

poisonous

turbid

cloudy

solute

a substance dissolved in a solution, as in the waste products filted out of the kidney into the urine

residual

urine that remains in the bladder after urination

reabsorption

the process of absorpting again

secretion

the release of substance from blood into renal tubules during urine filtration

renal failure

progressively slow development of kidney failure occurring over a period of years

catheterization

the introduction of a catheter into a body cavity or oragan to instill a substance or remove a fluid

cystoscopy

the process of viewing the interior of the bladder

cystometrography

an examination performed to evaluate bladder tone durring filling and voiding

creatinine clearance test

a diagnostic test for kidney function that measure the filtration rate of creatinine, a waste product

lithotripsy

crushing of stone in the bladder

urethritis

inflammation of the urethra

retroperitoneal

behind the peritoneal membrane

hemodialysis

mechanical filter 3x per wk 3-4hrs ave time a/v fistula external filtering more commonly used

peritoneal dialysis

peritoneal / ab membrane can be done by patient abdominal shunt internal filtering or cleansing

KUB

kidneys, ureters, bladder

BUN

blood urea nitrogen

ESRD

end-stage renal disease

UTI

urinary tract infection

IVP

intravenous pyelogram

protein

yeilds amino acids and help in the growth and repair of tissue

nephrons

microscopic functional units that form urine by the process of filtraion, reabsorption and secretion

albuminuria

protein in the urine

Micturition

The act of eliminating urine from the bladder, voiding urination

cystitis

inflammation of the urinary bladder

Calyx

A cuplike urine collection cavity, found in the kidney

Nocturia

Excessive urination during the night

Pyuria

Pus in the urine

Hematuria

blood in the urine

dysuria

painful or difficult urination

bacteriuria

presence of bacteria in the urine

Urgency

a feeling to void immediately

ketonuria

ketone bodies in urine

pyelonephritis

bacterial infection of the renal pelvis of the kidney

medulla

inner region of the kidney

renal calculi

stone formations in the kidney

Nephotic Syndrome

a group of clinical symptoms occurring when damage to glomerulus of the kidney resulting in sever proteinuria

Nephrosis

clinical symptoms occurring when damage to glumerulus of the kidney is present; same as Nephotic Syndrome

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