What are the 3 structural classifications of joints?
2. Cartilaginous Joints
3. Synovial Joints
No synovial cavity; bones are held together by fibrous connective tissue that is rich in collagen fibers
No synovial joint; bones are held together by cartilage
Synovial cavity present; bones are held together by dense irregular connective tissue of an articular capsule
What are the 3 functional classifications of joints?
An immovable joint.
A slightly movable joint.
A freely movable joint. All are synovial joints. They have a variety of shapes and movements.
What are the 3 types of fibrous joints?
A fibrous joint composed of a thin layer of dense fibrous connective tissue; Only occur in the skull.
Ex. The coronal suture between the parietal and frontal bones
A fibrous joint in which there is a greater distance between the articulating bones and more fibrous connective tissue than in the suture. Arranged in a bundle (ligament) or as a sheet (interosseous membrane).
Ex. The distal tibiofibular joint, where the anterior tibiofibular ligament connects the tibia and the fibula.
A fibrous joint in which a cone shapped peg fits into a socket.
Ex. The articulations of the roots of the teeth with the sockets (alveoli) of the alveolar processes of the maxillae and the mandible
What are the 2 types of cartilaginous joints?
A cartilaginous joint in which the connecting material is hyaline cartilage.
Ex. The epiphyseal plate that connects the epiphysis and the diaphysisof a growing bone.
A cartilaginous joint in which the ends of articulating bones are covered with hyaline cartilage, but a broad, flat disc of fibrocartilage connects the bones. Occurs in midline of body.
Ex. The pubic symphysis between the anterior surfaces of the hip bone.
What are the 6 types of synovial joints?
Articulated surfaces are flat or slightly curved; Nonaxial diarthrotic; (G)
Ex. Intercarple, intertarsal, sternocostal & vertebrocostal joints
Convex surface fits into concave surface; Monaxial diarthrotic; (F,E)
Ex. Elbow, ankle and interphalangeal joints.
Rounded or pointed surface fits into a ring formed partly by bone and partly by ligament; Monaxial diarthrotic; (R)
Ex. Atlanto-axial & radioulnar joints.
Oval-shapped projection fits into oval-shapped depression; Biaxial diarthrotic; (F,E,Abd,Add,C)
Ex. Radiocarpal & metacarpophalangeal joints.
Articular surface of one bone is saddle-shapped, and the articular surface of the other bone "sits" in the saddle; Biaxial diarthrotic; (F,E,Abd,Add,C)
Ex. Carpometacarpal joint between the trapezium and thumb.
Ball-like surface fits into a cup-like depression; Multiaxial diarthrotic; (F,E,Abd,Add,C,R)
Ex. Shoulder and hip joints.
Movement of relatively flat bone surfaces back-and-forth and side-to-side over one another; little change in angle between bones.
Increase or decrease in the angle between bones.
Decrease in the angle between articulating bones; usually in sagittal plane.
Movement of the trunk in the the frontal plane.
Increase in the angle between articulating bones; usually in the sagittal plane.
Extension beyond the anatomical position.
Movement of a bone away from the midline, usually in the frontal plane.
Movement of a bone toward the midline, usually in the frontal plane.
Flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction in succession, in which the distal end of a body part moves in a circle.
Movement of a bone around it's longitudinal axis; in the limbs, it may be medial or lateral.
Occurs at specific joints.
Superior movement of a body part.
Inferior movement of a body part.
Anterior movement of a body part in the transverse plane.
Posterior movement of a body part in the transverse plane.
Medial movement of the soles so that they face each other.
Lateral movement of the soles so that they face away from each other.
Bending the foot in the direction of the dorsum.
Bending the foot in the direction of the plantar surface.
Movement of the forearm that turns the palm anteriorly.
Movement of the forearm that turns the palm posteriorly.
Movement of the thumb across the palm to touch fingertips on the same hand.
What are the results of aging on joints?
1. Decreased production of synovial fluid
2. Ligaments become shorter
3. Ligaments become less flexible
What influences effect the aging of joints?
2. Wear & tear
3. Level of activity
Surgical replacement of damaged joints with plastic joints.
Why is arthroplasty performed?
1. To replace diseased joints
2. To replace injured joints
3. To relieve pain
Where is arthroplasty most commonly performed?
1. Hips (partial)
What are the types of replacement joints?
A form of reumatism in which joints are swollen, stiff, and painful.