state and local gov. test 1

70 terms by demartinim2 

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Brundtland report (common future)

development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs

Postindustrial society

society where the resources of labor and capital have been replaced by knowledge and information as the main sources of wealth creation; shift in focus from manufacturing industries to service industries; enabled by technological advance

higher order needs

needs that are satisfied internally, such as social, esteem, and self-actualization needs

smart growth

theory of urban growth and planning that attempts to concentrate growth in the center of a city, thereby avoiding urban sprawl

gentrification

the trend of middle- and upper-income Americans moving into city centers and rehabilitating much of the architecture but also replacing low-income populations, and changing the social character of certain neighborhoods

neo-liberalism

A strategy for economic development that calls for free markets, balanced budgets, privatization, free trade, and minimal government intervention in the economy.

mcdonaldization effect

international homogenization in culture, lifestyles, and technology that accompanies globalization; coined by George Ritzer, whose own ideas of mcdonaldization and hyperrationally derive from the theories of max weber

e government

how state and local govs are now heavily reliant on computers and electronics to conduct their work.

e democracy

how state and local govs across the country arre increasingly exchanging info and providing services to businesses and citizens alike in an effort to promote effeciency and increased accountability

democracy versus technocracy quandary

problem arising due to rapid technological innovation in the United States, where many policy problems are highly technical in nature and require scientific knowledge to manage effectively; this quandary questions whether the authority of those with specialized technical knowledge will supplant the democratic process of decision making

value change

fundamental cultural realignment (shift from agricultural to a postindustrial society)

post materialist needs

phenomena occuring due to the new wealth accumulated in advanced societies where priorities have shifted from survival to a focus on well being, self expressing, and quality of life

anthropocentric concerns

a philosophical perspective that views human needs and the interests as of the highest value and importance- contrasting with various life centered perspectives which assume that nonhuman species also have inherent value

bio centered

life centered/ eco centered

sustainability

the manner in which the social economic institutional and environmental needs of a community are met without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs

adaptive capacity

understanding state and local government sustainability issues and the ability of state and local governments to adapt to change; understanding the dynamics of the key sociocultural, bioecological and governance systems within which American states and their respective communities operate

institutional resiliency

the ability for local governmental community based institutions to withstand or react to major stressors

linkage mechanisms

framework and the principal institutions of state and local government

engaged citizenship

emphasizing a more assertive role for the citizen and a broader definition of the elements of citizenship to include social concerns and the welfare of others

confederal system

system of gov where the states operate as a sovereign gov and the legislature of any one state can set its own laws up independently of any other state

reserved powers

provision of const. which holds that all governmental powers that are not explicitly granted to the national government in the const are reserved to the states and their people

dual federalism

two systems, fulfilling distinct purposes without any significant overlap in function

cooperative federalism

the notion that the presence of urgent shared goals require concerted effort by all levels of govt

progressivism

an idea born at the local level (not the national level of public political dialogue) that recognized many of the very serious social and economic dilemmas that had been largely un-addressed for a while: woman's rights, minority rights, public health and sanitation problems, food and water safety and availability, homelessness, community planning, open and fair government elections, and accessible and equitable public education etc-- issues that remain important yet today are not recognized as fully as they should

pragmatic federalism

(1) flexibility is outcome driven rather than process driven (2) the downplaying of the philosophy of gov. meanin the set theories about the proper relationship between the national and state gov are of limited interest in this model

non centralized federalism

argue for a more individual focused approach relying on the individual consumer acting in market transaction to solve his or her own dilemmas rather than the community through collective decision making

communitarianism

a critique of classical social and political liberalism, stressing the central importance of the community group over the autonomous individual in the formulation of political and economic rights and obligations

classical liberalism

emphasizes a limited role in gov

political culture

The widely shared beliefs, values, and norms concerning the relationship of citizens to government and to one another.

individualistic

politics as a means to advance economic interests Individual with self-interest as motivation influence of Luther contract and individualistic ownership Limited government

moralistic

Characterized by or displaying a concern with morality; narrowly and conventionally moral

traditionalistic

The ____ political subculture reflects and older, pre-commerical society in which it is expected that those at the top of the social structure take a limited but dominant role in govt particularly for the preservation of the existing social order

mandate

the commission that is given to a government and its policies through an electoral victory

pork barrel

appropriations made by legislative bodies for local projects that are often not needed but that are created so that local representatives can win re-election in their home districts

organizational culture

The shared set of beliefs, expectations, values, norms, and work routines that influence the ways in which individuals, groups, and teams interact with one another and cooperate to achieve organizational goals.

political trust

relates in part to the process of governance and to the public institutions within which public decisions are made

social capital

the values and norms held by citizens then reflect trust in others, the active pursuit of engagement in networks of interpersonal relations of a wide variety, and standards of interchanging among people involving the principles of reciprocity and mutual respect

bureaucracy capacity

policy innovation is facilitated to a considerable degree

amenities

convenient features that helps to make life pleasant; social courtesies

renewable energy portfolios

bench marks for the portion of energy used by state consumers that must be supplied by renewable sources;created by state

green tags

represent a validation that renewable energy was produced and made available on the electric grid, commit energy producers and consumers alike to renewable zero commission energy

price subsides

inducements

community focused

Concentrating on a particular goal and not wasting time or energy on other things. In this situation paying special attention to the welfare of the people living in the area,

institutional actors

members of congress, congressional staff, president and inner circle, executive office of the president, cabinet, federal courts, bureaucracy

non-institutional actors

interest groups, lobbyists, media, think tanks, the public

protest politics

Mobilizing for protest events in the public sphere

elite challenging politics

aimed at creating change by challenging the powerful elite through direct action such as demonstrations petitions and boycotts intended to attract mass media attention to a cause

NIMBY

not in my backyard; addresses specific policy goals such as community opposition to the location of a prison in a town or city

interest groups

organization of people who share political, social or other goals; and agree to try to influence public policy to achieve those goals.

citizen groups

interest groups, also known as public interest groups, dedicated to promoting a vision of good public policy rather than the economic interests of their members.

social movements

broad based efforts to change societal institutions and practices that emphasize a collective identity reflective of an identifiable set of shared values

initiative

Procedure whereby a certain number of voters may, by petition, propose a law or constitutional amendment and have it submitted to the voters

ordinance

Laws enacted by state or federal legislatures, statutory law created by a town, city, or county

statute

legislative enactment (law enacted) by Congress or state legislature

referendum

when legislatures refer a specific measure to the voters for approval or disapproval

missionary parties

missionary parties rather ideological in orientation in a sense of proclaiming a "mission" to fulfill if elected to office in terms of specific public policies or programs

broker parties

honesty, integrity and fair business dealings - not omitting known facts and not giving false info

primary elections

An election held before the general election in which voters decide which of a party's candidates will be the party's nominee for the general election.

caucus

A meeting of local party members to choose party officials or candidates for public office and to decide the platform.

two party system

An electoral system with two dominant parties that compete in state or national elections. Third parties have little chance of winning.

single member district

candidate with the plurality of the vote, not necessarily the majority, wins the election

proportional representation

An election system in which each party running receives the proportion of legislative seats corresponding to its proportion of the vote.

multi member district

Legislative districts that elect more than one representative. Some state legislative districts, and many local councils, have more than one representative elected per district., more than one member is elected from the same constituency, a district in which all voters participate in the election of two or more representatives to a policymaking body, such as a city council or a state legislature

open primary

Primary election in which any voter, regardless of party, may vote.

nonpartisan offices

candidates run for office without listing a political affiliation; generally held for local gov. offices such as school districts, local special districts judicial boards and commissions

closed primaries

preferred by parties, only registered members of a political party can vote using the ballot of the political party

parliamentary system

a system of government in which power is concentrated in the legislature. The legislature selects one of its members, usually called a prime minister, as the nation's principal leader and other legislative members serve as the leader's cabinet

integration of powers

prime minister selects other leading party members to become governmental ministers, blurring the line between executive and legislative branches of gov. the prime minister and other ministers must all be members of parliament

pluralist theory

an ideal type democratic theory that holds that American democratic political process is genuinely open to the involvement of any group that wishes to participate

elite theory

describes the policy process is one dominated by an elite few who's powerful interests influence policy largely behind the scenes

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