dependent on; conditional
Cannot be otherwise; must be the case
derived by logic, without observed facts; a priori knowledge is based on reasoning not experience
knowledge gained after experience, through reasoning of known facts/ observations
(logic) a statement that is necessarily true for example he is brave or he is not brave.
a discussion in which reasons are advanced for and against some proposition or proposal
a statement that is assumed to be true and from which a conclusion can be drawn
the theory that the right action is the one that produces the greatest amount of happiness for the greatest number of people
Morality is based on rules and unchanging principles. This approach to ethics states that the motives of the actor determine the goodness or value of the act rather than the consequences.
reasoning: deriving general principles from particular facts or instances ("Every cat I have ever seen has four legs; cats are four-legged animals").
a method of reasoning in which a conclusion follows necessarily from the stated premises; inference by reasoning from general to specific. E.g. Socrates is a man, all men are mortal, Socrates is mortal. The conclusion is contained in the premises.
a proposition that is necessarily true independent of fact or experience, true by definition e.g. a bachelor is an unmarried man.
Observations, research, or experiments are necessary to determine if a statement is true
(philosophy) the doctrine that knowledge is acquired by reason without resort to experience
(philosophy) the doctrine that knowledge derives from experience
"a network of concepts and propositions by which we organize, describe, and explain our experience". In other words, how we make sense of concepts.
Relations of Ideas and Matters of Fact. Relations of ideas are a priori propositions that cannot be doubted, for example mathematics and geometrical rules. Necessary truths. Matters of Fact are a posteriori propositions that are about the external world. These are contingent truths and are not always true.
hypothesized that the vocabulary and structure of the language one learns will predetermine how an individual will name and classify events, concepts, and the like, thus shaping how the individual perceives the world
the disbelief in any claims of ultimate knowledge
German philosopher, created critical philosophy from the ideas of Hume and Leibniz, ideas don't conform to world, world can only be known as it conforms to mind's structure, said morality requires belief in God, freedom, and immortality, although these can't be proved, wrote "Critique of Pure Reason"
Building on Locke's teachings, he argued that the mind was just a bundle of impressions. These impressions originate only in sense experiences and our habits of joining these experiences together. Since our ideas ultimately reflect only our sense experiences, our reason can't tell us anything about questions that cannot be verified by sense experience (in the form of controlled experiments or math), such as the origin of the universe and the existence of God. These ideas undermined the Enlightenment's faith in the power of reason.
the Enlightenment, a philosophical movement of the 18th century, characterized by belief in the power of human reason and by innovations in political, religious, and educational doctrine.
17th century French philosopher; wrote 'Discourse on Method' and 'The Meditations'. Famously stated 'I think therefore I am' and argued mind and matter were completly seperate; known as father of modern rationalism.
English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience (1632-1704)
(430-347 BCE) Was a disciple of Socrates whose cornerstone of thought was his theory of Forms, in which there was another world of perfection.
philosopher who believed in an absolute right or wrong; asked students pointed questions to make them use their reason, later became Socratic method
theorist who believed that humans have an inborn or "native" propensity to develop language. (Native = Nature).
"our nature in its education and want of education".
Plato imagines a group of people who have lived chained in a cave all of their lives, facing a blank wall. The people watch shadows projected on the wall by things passing in front of a fire (mind of God) behind them (puppeteers), and begin to ascribe forms to these shadows. According to Plato, the shadows are as close as the prisoners get to seeing reality. He then explains how the philosopher is like a prisoner who is freed from the cave and comes to understand that the shadows on the wall are not constitutive of reality at all, as he can perceive the true form of reality rather than the mere shadows seen by the prisoners.
Literally, ideas that are "born into the mind"; knowlege that is "programed: into us from birth and need not be learned. Experience may be necessary to "trigger off" such ideas, but they are already "in" all of us.
(philosophy) the philosophical theory that some ideas are innate
The world of the forms
Outside the cave.
Beyond the physical world of empiricism.
A rationalists who believed that one could deduced truth. Came up with monadology
something imagined or pictured in the mind
an understanding gained through study or experience
(logic) a statement that affirms or denies something and is either true or false