5 Written Questions
5 Matching Questions
- Immanuel kant
- Plato's Cave
- a priori
- a "our nature in its education and want of education".
Plato imagines a group of people who have lived chained in a cave all of their lives, facing a blank wall. The people watch shadows projected on the wall by things passing in front of a fire (mind of God) behind them (puppeteers), and begin to ascribe forms to these shadows. According to Plato, the shadows are as close as the prisoners get to seeing reality. He then explains how the philosopher is like a prisoner who is freed from the cave and comes to understand that the shadows on the wall are not constitutive of reality at all, as he can perceive the true form of reality rather than the mere shadows seen by the prisoners.
- b derived by logic, without observed facts; a priori knowledge is based on reasoning not experience
- c German philosopher, created critical philosophy from the ideas of Hume and Leibniz, ideas don't conform to world, world can only be known as it conforms to mind's structure, said morality requires belief in God, freedom, and immortality, although these can't be proved, wrote "Critique of Pure Reason"
- d a discussion in which reasons are advanced for and against some proposition or proposal
- e Morality is based on rules and unchanging principles. This approach to ethics states that the motives of the actor determine the goodness or value of the act rather than the consequences.
5 Multiple Choice Questions
- 17th century French philosopher; wrote 'Discourse on Method' and 'The Meditations'. Famously stated 'I think therefore I am' and argued mind and matter were completly seperate; known as father of modern rationalism.
- a method of reasoning in which a conclusion follows necessarily from the stated premises; inference by reasoning from general to specific. E.g. Socrates is a man, all men are mortal, Socrates is mortal. The conclusion is contained in the premises.
- theorist who believed that humans have an inborn or "native" propensity to develop language. (Native = Nature).
- Relations of Ideas and Matters of Fact. Relations of ideas are a priori propositions that cannot be doubted, for example mathematics and geometrical rules. Necessary truths. Matters of Fact are a posteriori propositions that are about the external world. These are contingent truths and are not always true.
- dependent on; conditional
5 True/False Questions
Necessary → something imagined or pictured in the mind
inductive → a method of reasoning in which a conclusion follows necessarily from the stated premises; inference by reasoning from general to specific. E.g. Socrates is a man, all men are mortal, Socrates is mortal. The conclusion is contained in the premises.
The Enlightenment → dependent on; conditional
David Hume → Building on Locke's teachings, he argued that the mind was just a bundle of impressions. These impressions originate only in sense experiences and our habits of joining these experiences together. Since our ideas ultimately reflect only our sense experiences, our reason can't tell us anything about questions that cannot be verified by sense experience (in the form of controlled experiments or math), such as the origin of the universe and the existence of God. These ideas undermined the Enlightenment's faith in the power of reason.
premise → a statement that is assumed to be true and from which a conclusion can be drawn