Computer Science 2 Exam Review

93 terms by renee_adele 

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bar code

An identification code that consists of a set of vertical lines and spaces of different widths

optical resolution

The actual photographed resolution of a digital camera

turnaround

Many companies use OCR characters on a(n) ____ document, which is a document that is returned to the company that creates and sends it.

resolution

The number of horizontal and vertical pixels in a display device

ergonomic

A(n) ____ keyboard has a design that reduces the chance of wrist and hand injuries.

input

Any data and instructions into the memory of a computer

MICR

Used almost exclusively by the banking industry for check processing

stylus

A small metal or plastic device that looks like a tiny ink pen but uses pressure instead of ink

scanner

A retinal ____ works similarly to an iris recognition system, but instead scans patterns of blood vessels in the back of the retina.

video

A(n) ____ conference in a meeting between two or more geographically separated people who use a network or the Internet to transmit audio and video data.

ADA

Requires any company with 15 or more employees to make reasonable attempts to accommodate the needs of physically challenged workers

mouse

A pointing device that fits comfortably under the palm of the hand

OCR

A technology that involves reading typewritten, computer-printed, or hand-printed characters from ordinary documents and translating the images into a form that the computer can process

ergonomics

The goal of ____ is to incorporate comfort, efficiency, and safety in the design of items in the workplace.

recognition

Voice ____ is the computer's capability of distinguishing spoken words.

user response

A series of instructions that tells a computer what to do and how to do it

OMR

A technology that reads hand-drawn marks such as small circles or rectangles

biometrics

The technology of authenticating a person's identity by verifying a personal characteristic

pixels per inch

Manufacturers often use ____ to represent the resolution of a digital camera like the one shown in the accompanying figure.

plotters

Use a row of charged wires to draw an electrostatic pattern on specially coated paper and then fuse toner to the pattern

pixel

A single point in an electronic image

response

An important measure of LCD monitors is the ____ time, which is the time in milliseconds that it takes to turn a pixel on or off.

display

An output deivice that conveys text, graphics, and video information

interactive whiteboard

A touch-sensitive device, resembling a dry-erase board that displays the image on a connected computer screen

toner

A printer creates images using a laser beam and powdered ink called ____.

laser printer

A high-speed, high-quality non impact printer

hard copy

Printed information that exists physically and is a more permanent form of output

plasma monitor

A display that uses gas plasma technology, which sandwiches a layer of gas between two glass plates

printout

A hard copy is also called a ____.

output device

Any hardware component that conveys information to one or more people

if the device breaks down, users lose all four functions

The disadvantage of a multi-function peripheral is ____.

output

Data that has been processed into a useful form

disk cache

Consists of memory chips that store frequently accessed items

bit

The smallest unit of data a computer can process

backup

A duplicate of a file, program, or disk that can be used in case the original is lost, damaged, or destroyed

thumb drive

A flash memory storage device that plugs in a USB port on a computer or portable device

all of the above

An advantage of portable hard disks and removable hard disks is that users can ____.

formatting

The process of dividing a disk into tracks and sectors, so the operating system can store and locate data and information on the disk

CD-R

A multi-session optical disc on which users can write but not erase their own items such as text, graphics, and audio

sequential

Tape storage requires ____ access, which refers to reading or writing data consecutively.

CD-RW

Overcomes the major disadvantage of CD-R disks, which is being able to write on them only once

hard disks

Use magnetic particles to store data, instructions, and information on a disk's surface

tape

All of the following use direct access EXCEPT ____.

smart card

Similar in size to a credit or an ATM card; stores data on a thin microprocessor embedded in the card

storage device

The computer hardware that records and/or retrieves items to and from storage media

capacity

The number of bytes (characters) a storage medium can hold

cloud storage

An Internet service that provides storage to computer users

DVD-ROM

A type of optical disc that users can read but not write or erase

RAID

A group of two or more integrated hard disks

platter

Made of aluminum, glass, or ceramic and is coated with an alloy material that allows items to be recorded magnetically on its surface

storage

Holds data, instructions, and information for future use

filter

A program that removes or blocks certain items from being displayed

spooling

A process that sends documents to a buffer instead of sending them immediately to the printer

multiuser operating system

Enables two or more users to run programs simultaneously

graphical user interface (GUI)

Users interact with menus and visual images such as icons, buttons, and other objects to issue commands

user name

A unique combination of characters, such as letters of the alphabet or numbers, that identifies one specific user

computer virus

Describes a potentially damaging computer program that affects, or infects, a computer negatively by altering the way the computer works without the user's knowledge or permission

operating system and utility programs

Two types of system software

hacker

Someone who tries to access a computer or network illegally

worm

Malware that copies itself repeatedly

Trojan horse

Malware that hides within or looks like a legitimate program

booting

The process of starting or restarting a computer

BIOS

Firmware that contains a computer's start-up instructions

uninstaller

A utility that removes a program as well as any associated entries in the system files

plug and play

Means the operating system automatically configures new devices as users install them

user interface

Controls how users enter data and instructions into a computer and how information is displayed on the screen

system software

Consists of the programs that control or maintain the operations of a computer and its devices

malware

Software that acts without a user's knowledge and deliberately alters a computer's operations

restore

In the event that a backup file is used, a ____ program reverses the process and returns backed up files to their original form.

folder

A specific named location on a storage medium that contains related documents

multitasking

A single user/____ operating system allows a single user to work on two or more programs that reside in memory at the same time.

spyware

A program placed on a computer without the user's knowledge or consent that secretly collects information about the user

password

A private combination of characters associated with a user name that allows access to certain computer resources

operating system

A set of programs containing instructions that coordinate all the activities among computer hardware resources

personal firewall

A utility that detects and protects a computer from unauthorized intrusions

screen saver

Causes a monitor's screen to display a moving image or blank screen if not keyboard or mouse activity occurs for a specified period of time

Ethernet

A network standard that specifies no central computer or device on the network should control when data can be transmitted

all of the above

Computer communications describes a process in which two or more computers or devices transfer ____.

communications channels

Two examples of ____ are cable television lines and telephone lines.

network

A collection of computers and devices connected together via communications devices and transmission media

communications device

Any typed of hardware capable of transmitting data, instructions, and information between a sending device and a receiving device

cybercafe

A coffeehouse or restaurant that provides computers with Internet access to its customers

groupware

A software application that helps groups of people work together on projects and share information over a network

Wi-Fi

Identifies any network based on the 802.11 family of standards

peer-to-peer network

A simple, inexpensive network that typically connects fewer than 10 computers

router

A communications device that connects multiple computers together and transmits data to its correct destination on the network

hot spot

A wireless network that provides Internet connections to mobile computers and other devices

ring network

A network topology in which a cable forms a closed loop, with all computers and devices arranged along it

star network

All of the computers and devices (nodes) on the network connect to a central device

wide area network (WAN)

A network that covers a large geographic area, such as a city, country, or the world, using a communications channel that combines many types of media

bandwidth

The amount of data, instructions, and information that can travel over a communications channel

client/server network

One or more computers act as a server and the other computers on the network request services from the server

SMS

Users type and send short text messages on a smart phone or mobile device

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