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Vocabulary

virus

an infectious agent made up of a core of nucleic acid and a protein coat

capsid

the protein coat around the core of nucleic acid

envelope

an additional protective coating usually made of lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates

host

an organism that shelters and nourishes something

lytic cycle

The viral replication process that rapidly kills a host cell

lysogenic cycle

a type of replication in which a virus does not immediately kill a host cell

prophage

A viral DNA segment that is inserted in a bacterial cell's chromosome

retrovirus

a virus that contains an RNA core that replicates by first transcribing its RNA into DNA

viroid

a simple stand of pure RNA

prion

a protein molecule that can cause disease in animas

vaccination

the process of injecting a person with a harmless--weakened or dead--form of a virus

plasmids

Smaller pieces of circular DNA contained in bacteria

endospores

dehydrated cells formed when living conditions become unfavorable in monerans

binary fission

a process in which the chromosome of a unicellular organism is continually replicated, after which the cell divides forming two identical cells

conjunction

the process of exchanging genetic material through cell-to-cell contact

archaebactria

the group of monerans that are often found living in harsh environments

eubacteria

the so-called true bacteria that includes all other bacteria

aerobes

organisms that use oxygen during respiration

anaerobes

organisms that do not use oxygen during respiration

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