GOVT 2301 Test 2

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M. Young TVCC

The full faith and credit clause, which asserts states must recognize each other's public acts, records, and judicial proceedings, is located in which Article of the Constitution?

Article IV

How many local governments are there in the United States?

more than 89,000

Which of these pairs of presidents are most closely associated with new federalism, or devolution?

Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan

Which branch of government in the United States is responsible for education policy?

state government

Which levels of government provide funding for elementary and secondary education?

federal, state, and local governments

Which branch of government oversees interstate compacts?

Congress

Which type of governmental transfer of funds gives states the most latitude in the use of the money?

block grants

According to some scholars, passage of which amendment led to a loss of influence of state governments in national policy-making?

Seventeenth

What term is used by political scientists to describe the collaborative effort of two or more levels of government?

intergovernmental relations

The ________ Amendment legally ended slavery in every state.

Thirteenth

Based on the 2010 Census data, how much money will the national government distribute to the states in grant dollars?

over 400 billion

Passed in 1913, which constitutional amendment powerfully enhanced the national government's ability to raise money?

Sixteenth

McCulloch v. Maryland was decisive because it

affirmed that national law is supreme to conflicting state law.

Which of these eras saw the appearance of cooperative federalism?

1932-1963

Whose presidency marked the appearance of centralized federalism, where the national government imposed its own policy preferences on state and local governments?

Lyndon Johnson

Which type of power relationship prevailed between the national government and the states between 1789 and 1932?

dual federalism

The supremacy clause, which establishes the supreme law of the land, is mentioned in which article of the Constitution?

Article VI

The impact of which event on Americans led to the passage of the Social Security Act of 1935?

the Great Depression

American colonists experienced three different types of government in which of these sequences?

unitary system, confederal system, federal system

Which of the following is most closely related to the concept of implied powers?

necessary and proper clause

Historically, which of these has been the most common form of national grant-in-aid to the states?

categorical formula grants

Which case saw the Supreme Court strike down the national Gun-Free School Zones Act as unconstitutional?

United States v. Lopez

Today, the majority of the world's governments have which system of government?

unitary system

What percentage of states must ratify a constitutional amendment for it to pass?

three-quarters

Which body retains primary jurisdiction over local governments?

state governments

Which of the following pairs of terms are considered interchangeable?

liberties and freedoms

The first ________ amendments to the Constitution explicitly limited the power of legislative, executive, and judicial branches of the national government.

ten

Which branch of government did the framers of the Constitution seek to restrict in power with the Bill of Rights?

national government

Which means of political expression are guaranteed under the Constitution?

speech, assembly, petition, and the press

Which concept argues that true and free political discourse requires a forum for free and unrestrained political discussion?

marketplace of ideas

The Constitution reflects a tension between which of the following two ideas?

freedom and order

Which legal case established the clear and present danger test in relation to free speech?

Schenck v. United States

Which piece of legislation barred individuals from advocating or teaching the overthrow of the United States?

Smith Act

Which 1969 legal case marked a reversal of the Supreme Court's traditional position and also saw the establishment of the imminent lawless action test?

Brandenburg v. Ohio

Picketing, flag burning, or wearing an armband are all examples of

symbolic speech.

False written statements that harm the reputation of another person are known as

libel.

The principle of prior restraint, established in the case of Near v. Minnesota, relates to

censorship.

What do the religion clauses of the First Amendment achieve?

bar the government from establishing a national religion, from favoring one group over another, and from interfering with individual religious practices

In 2007, what percentage of Americans surveyed said religion was fairly or very important in their lives?

82 percent

Most Americans believe in ________ between religious organizations and the government.

some degree of separation

Which case saw the Supreme Court rule against the subsidization of parochial schools through cigarette taxes?

Lemon v. Kurtzman

Which case saw the Supreme Court rule against formalized prayer in schools?

Engel v. Vitale

Which case, decided in 1965, first firmly established the right to privacy?

Griswold v. Connecticut

What year saw the passage of Roe v. Wade, which first established abortion rights in the United States?

1973

The recent development of online networking sites such as Facebook and YouTube has civil libertarians worried about the easy accessibility of people's ________ history.

financial, personal, employment, and legal

Which four amendments are known together as criminal due process rights?

Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Eighth

Which 1961 decision extended exclusionary rules of search and seizure to state court proceedings?

Mapp v. Ohio

In which of the following places has the Court ruled that there is no expectation of privacy?

cars and trashcans, and parks and stores

The Fifth Amendment establishes

protection against compelled self-incrimination.

Miranda v. Arizona legally established which of the following personal liberties?

the right to counsel and information on charges against oneself

Which inherent characteristic(s) is/are currently protected from discrimination under the Constitution?

race, color, sex, religion, and national origin

Which 1967 case determined unconstitutional state laws barring interracial marriage?

Loving v. Virginia

Sex-based discrimination cases are subject to which legal treatment test?

heightened scrutiny test

What year were women granted the right to vote in the United States?

1920

Which constitutional amendments were passed in the aftermath of the Civil War, and codified the victory of the North?

Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth

Which of the following tactics was/were used in southern states during the Jim Crow era to deny African Americans their voting rights?

white primaries, literacy tests, poll taxes, and grandfather clauses

Which Court ruling created the separate but equal doctrine, which upheld state laws that mandated racial separation in schools and all public accommodations?

Plessy v. Ferguson

Which Supreme Court decision ended the federal government's support for separate but equal practices in the southern states?

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka

Who was the first African American to sit on the U.S. Supreme Court?

Thurgood Marshall

What year saw Rosa Parks challenge the constitutionality of Jim Crow laws in Alabama?

1955

Which civil rights leaders urged a more aggressive approach as an alternative to Martin Luther King Jr.'s nonviolent tactics?

Stokely Carmichael and Malcolm X

_______, part of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, establishes a standard of equality in employment opportunity, and establishes a body of law that regulates legal employment practices.

Title VII

The Declaration of Sentiments, signed in 1848, called for women in the United States to be granted which of the following rights?

the right to vote, own property, and sue; and equal educational and employment opportunities

When did the second wave of the women's movement begin?

1960s

Which country of origin does the largest percentage of Asian Americans derive from?

China

Which minority group enjoys the highest median income?

Asian Americans

What year saw the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act, which enhances the federal prohibition of discrimination against people with disabilities?

correct 1990

Which four states allow same-sex couples to marry?

Connecticut, Iowa, Massachusetts, and Vermont

Colleges and universities use affirmative action policies to ensure a student body that is diverse in

race, color, economic status, and place of origin.

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