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Gerontology is the scientific study of the ________________ aspects of aging.

biological, psychological, and social

In an Israeli Kibbutz, all members regardless of their age, strength, position, or status have all of the following EXCEPT:

COMPULSORY RETIREMENT

Which of the following is not a factor associated with successful aging?

Accepting compulsory retirement

A good example of functional age is:

at the age of 58, no longer able to run 20 miles as before.

Which of the following is not an example of chronicle age?

well old

The mose important factors in determining subjective age identity is activity level and ________.

health.

Mrs. Moth recently became a grandmother. THe best term to define the change in her life is ___________.

social role

Geronologists define "a cohort" as:

an aggregate of individuals who experience the same event within the same time interval.

The term "agism" is best understood as:

prejudice and discrimination against people beacuse they are old.

All of the following are facts about aging except:

Nearly a third of people 65 or older are in nursing homes.

Men are more likely than women to be widowed.

False.

In the new millennium, policy issues concerning the elderly will be at the center of the shifting political spectrum.

True.

The portrayal of elderly people in television ads has improved significantly in the last 30 to 40 years.

True

In the past, older parents commonly lived with their children and grandchildren.

False

People who grew up during The Great Depression in the 1930s may be more cautious about spending their money than people who grew up in the 1990s. This is an example of:

a cohort effect

Each succeeding generation in this country has been better educated than the one before it which is important since education is one of the best predictors of a range of social outcomes.

True

Across the life course, people with college degrees have better jobs, higher lifetime income, and better health than less educated people.

True

Gerontological specialists fall into all catergories listed below except _______________.

early education.

One study of adjustment to life in a nursing home found that the most vulnerable individuals were:

those who have lost control of their own life.

The largest birth cohort in the 20th century that will demand support in their old age is clearly the ____________.

Baby Boomers

Informal rules that specify age-appropriate roles and behavior and tell us whether we are on time or off time for various life events are known as:

Age norms

The life course of individuals is shaped entirely by the individual.

False

Which of the following statements is NOT a characteristic of age grade?

Most societies have more clearly marked age grades for females.

An example of cohort effect is:

an older cohort whoe believes that living together is wrong when the younger cohort does not.

Which of the following longitudinal research designs found that personality does not change after 30?

The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

The longitudinal research design which found that African-American respondents are less likely than Caucasian respondents to receive assistance or to use informal sources of health care was:

Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest-Old study.

A major disadvantage of the longitudinal research design is the cost.

True

In sociological terms, the __________ clock orders major life events.

Social

One of the reasons for the "crowded nest" phenomenon is:

low wage for young workers.

Social scientists have found that there is a sequencing in the order of later life moves. The second move is more likely to occur when:

older adults develop chronic disabilities, a serious illness, or become widowed.

One theory which seeks to explain why inequality increases with age is the:

cumulative disadvantage theory.

Why do most people think of "old age" as starting at 65?

Prior to the year 2000, that was the age at which retired workers could begin receiving Social Security benefits.

Women are still the primary caregivers for children and aging parents. One of the disadvantages they face because of this is:

they may turn down promotions at work in exchange for a flexible work schedule, leaving them with lower wages and less retirement income.

Longitudinal research follows the same group of people over time.

True

Childhood weight patterns have no long-term effect on weight gain or loss in adult years as was once thought.

False

Settersen and Hagestad suggest to use the term age timetables instead of age norms because

there are no sanctions or consequences for missing age norms.

A _____ is the impact of a historical event on the entire society.

period effect

One researcher found that German veterans who survived WWII were most affected when they

entered the labor market for the first time after the war.

Most older people have serious disabilities.

False

Until recently, middle age was indistinct from the rest of adult life.

True

The first practitioners of social gerontology were:

Developmental psychologists

A theory is:

a broad explanation that provides the structure for organizing and interpreting multiple observable facts and their relationship to one another.

For both disengagement and activity theories, the main focus is:

individual

One of the findings from the larger study in Chicago in the 1940s on adjustment to aging among Caucasian middle class men and women over 60 was:

poor adjustment was correlated with lack of activity

The theory stated that individuals play a varietyof social roles across the life course, such as student, mother, wife, daughter, businesswoman, volunteer, grandmother, and so on and was one of the earliest attempts in social gerontology to explain how individuals adjust to aging. This theory is known as:

Role Theory

Researchers use _____ to try to understand what they are observing in a way that is reliable and valid across observations, and then they account for what they observed in the light of what has already been learned from previous research.

the scientific method of inquiry.

The fact that nearly all older people have basic health insurance through Medicare, but most have no way to pay for long term care is an example that demonstrates the _____________.

Political Economy Approach

The Disengagement Theory developed by Cummings and Henry states that:

normal aging involves a natural and inevitable withdrawal from people in the social system.

Which of the following is not a factor listed in your textbook regarding the disengagement among nursing home residents?

eating difficulties

According the the activity theory:

Successful aging is active aging

The continuity theory uses:

a lifecourse perspective to define normal aging and to distinguish it from pathological aging

The most controversial element of the continuity theory is the definition of:

normal aging

According to Arnold Rose, within the subculture of the elderly, high status is conferred on those who:

have good mental and physical health

Recent studies have found the exchange theory useful in explaining:

reasons for social interaction.

All of the following are types of social change in the modernization theory except:

leisure activities

Johnson and Barer, in the study of the oldest-old, found that about half remained engaged in social activites and those who did not were childless and single.

False

The political economy theories view old age as a socially constructed process created through power struggles.

True

A central premise of the modernization theory is that it shattered the concept of _____________.

veneration of elderly

The most recent theoretical approach in the study of aging is termed ________ which considers how the forces of globalization affect policies and programs for the aged and the daily lives of older people.

critical gerontology

Sometimes social programs appear to benefit the elderly, but really benefit businesses. This example is presented in the textbook withing the:

Political Economy Approach.

Which of the following statements is not a characteristic of the echo boomers?

Members of this cohort were born between 1964 and 1976.

The Census Bureau makes a national count of the population every five years.

False

More males are born than females.

True

In developed countries such as Japan, women can expect to live ___ to __ years longer than men.

six, eight

Average life expectancy in Africa in the year 2000 was only __, due in large part to deaths from HIV/AIDS.

46

The fastest growing segment of the population is:

oldest old (85 and over).

All of the following were factors which contributed to the decline in the fertility rate of women between 1971 and 1980 except:

The environmental movement

The leading cause of death in the United States for the 65 and older population is

heart disease

All of the following are possible negative consequences of an aging population except:

an aging population will mean less volunteers.

_____________ is the study of population processes - fertility, mortality, and migration.

Demography

One of the most pressing issues among the aged in the twenty-first century is

healthcare

The baby boom was created by an upsurge in fertility during

the post World War II era

Jeanne Calment, of France, lived to be

122 years old

Life expectancy is the greatest number of years any member of a species has been known to survive.

False

Demographers study population characteristics for all of the following reasons except:

to dictate fair funding for specific programs.

America has the highest life expectancy in the world.

False

The baby boom generation had fewer children than their parent's generation.

True

After age 85, the mortality rate for African Americans fall below that of whites.

True

Dan Buettner, the author of a book titled ____, has identified longevity hot spots around the world where he examined lifestyles that promote longevity.

Blue Zones

The human life span appears to be about __ years.

120

The Social Security Act of 1935 was passed to provide retirement benefits to workers at age:

65

The term "welfare" as used by social scientists refers to programs that protect people from the risk of loss of income due to:

all of the above

Social insurance programs are paid for through:

payroll taxes

One reason that SSI (Supplemental Security Income, a means-tested program for the aged, blind, and disabled poor) doesn't adequately protect the poorest elderly is:

many older people are unwilling to undergo a means test, because it is humiliating

Medicare contains 4 Parts, A, B, C and D. Part B of Medicare pays for which of the following?

Doctor's office visit

The main source of funding for long-term care is Medicare.

False

Medicare is available to older persons based on age, not need.

True

An example of one of the programs under the Older Americans Act is senior centers.

True

To social scientists, the term _______ refers to private and public programs that protect people from the risks of loss of income due to unemployment, disability, divorce, poor health, or retirement.

Welfare

One of the services not provided by the Older Americans Act is:

Dental Care

The eligibility for Medicaid is based on income and assets.

True

In response to concerns that Medicaid was encouraging unnecessary institutionalization since Medicaid is the main financial source for long-term care, ____ was formed to help individuals receive long-term care services such as homemaker services, respite care, meals on wheels, physical therapy and help with chores.

Home and Community-Based Waiver Services Program

In most Western nations, including the U.S.A, basic coverage of health care services for the aged is inseparable from health care benefits available to the population as a whole.

True

The story about Mr. Thomas, age 86 who suffers from Parkinson's Disease, reveals

that our health care services are not coordinated well with each other.

Tax expenditure programs are useful because they are one tool that promotes equality.

False

Social insurance programs have, as their main purpose, to:

provide economic security over the life course and prevent people from falling into destitution.

In the United States, fiscal welfare is called:

tax expenditures

Medicare Part D, the newest part of the Medicare program, pays for all medications prescribed by a physician.

False

One distinguishing feature of public assistance programs, such as Medicaid, is that applicants are subject to a means test.

True

This is the most widely used service that came from the Older Americans Act:

senior centers

Most scientists agree that aging has:

multiple causes

The ________ theory notes that as one ages, the collagen loses some of its elasticity and there is a hardening of the arteries of the circulating system.

cross-linkage

All of the following are considered to be activities of daily living (ADLs) except:

reading

As people age, they are more likely to:

sleep less

Older people have more difficulty maintaining normal body temperature in hot weather because they:

have lost fatty tissue

The most cited reason for disability in older people is:

arthritis

Which of the following theories equates the body to a machine that eventually wears out?

wear and tear

Which of the following is not characteristic of the aging heart?

There are no changes in the human heart related to age.

In one study of Swedish twins, it found for men, all of the following were risk factors associated with angina except:

obesity

Visual disorders such as glaucoma and cataracts are a part of normal aging.

False

As seen in the lecture video clip, ____ of all nursing home patients suffer from incontinence.

50%

Which type of theory emphasizes aging as a result of random damage?

Environmental

Older drivers may pose a risk to themselves and to public safety. The oldest-old (85 and over) are ________ times more likely to die in a crash as are drivers 40 to 49.

10

Until recently, a commonly prescribed treatment for menopause was:

Hormone Treatment Therapy

Hearing loss has many social consequences. Those consequences specifically mentioned in the textbook in one longitudinal study include all but:

Problems with sex drive

The problem with this theory is that it implies that a more active organism should age more quickly, yet the opposite is true in humans.

Wear and Tear Theory

As mentioned in your textbook, an 85-year old woman who takes a fall could experience ____ which many times leads to loss of independence and even death.

A hip fracture

When a elderly woman falls and has a hip fracture, this could lead to death because ___.

of inactivity that may lead to pneumonia.

Women have fewer years of active life expectancy.

True

As seen in the video clip, Susan experienced ___, which is caused by a virus after a sinus infection.

anosmia

The branch of psychology that studies mental processes is:

cognitive

______________ is the most elusive mental process to define and measure.

creativity

______________ intelligence is largely uninfluenced by prior learning.

fluid

An example of tip-of-their tongue phenomenon is:

inability to remember a friend's name in an introduction.

One way to measure changes in learning rates has been through studies of changes in:

eye blink classical conditioning

All of the following are reasons why learning rates seem to decline with age except:

older people have less interest in learning.

Alzheimer's patients tend to forget:

permanently

A _________is a rupture or obstruction of blood vessel to the brain that damages brain tissue.

stroke

Which of the following is not a symptom of clinical depression?

loss of speech

Enduring dispositions toward thoughts, feelings and behaviors, both inherited and learned, are called:

personality traits

The state of compatibility between the individual and the environment that allows a person to maintain a sense of well-being or satisfaction with quality of life is:

coping

A stage of memory where information that is learned is placed into memory for later use is called

encoding

Long-term memory is relatively stable and declines only slightly with age.

True

Short term memory seems to slow down with age.

True

Vascular dementia is a reversible dementia caused by a series of strokes that have a cumulative effect.

False

An international organization that offers older adults learning options that are based on college campuses and offers tours to educational and historic sites is

Elderhostel

Delirium is a reversible dementia that has a more rapid onset than other types of dementia.

True

Women of all ages experience more depression than men, and the gender gap increases with age.

True

Memory loss that disrupts everyday life is not a normal part of aging.

True

Clive Wearing, as seen in the video, _______

has limited memory that lasts seconds.

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