CH 29 - 31 VOCAB

37 terms by amelanie

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alternation of generations

all land plants have a life cycle that consists of 2 multicellular stages

gametophyte

haploid plant cells that produce gametes

sporophyte

egg + sperm = fertilization (diploid, 2n, zygote); divides mitotically; produces spores by meiosis; seedless vascular plant life cylce

embryophytes

land plants whose zygote develops within the tissues of the female parent, deriving nutrients from it

gametangia

multicellular organ in plants that are responsible for the production of gametes

archegonia

female gametangia; produces 1 egg

antheridia

male gametangia; produces many sperm

nonvascular

plants lacking xylem nor phloem tissue; accounts for small size

bryophytes

smallest, simplest sporophytes of all plant groups; must absorb water, sugars, & other nutrients from parental gametophytes

sporangia

structure in which meiosis occurs in the sporophyte stage

spores

a haploid reproductive cell that gives rise to gametophytes, where swimming sperm fertilize eggs, yielding the diploid zygote which will grow into the sporophyte generation

seeds

multicellular plant embryos packaged with a food supply in a protective coat

5 crucial adaptaions to the success of seed plants

reduced gametophytes, heterospory, ovules & the production of eggs, pollen & production of sperm, seeds

heterospory

production of 2 types of spores

megaspores

produce female gametophytes, which produce eggs

microspores

produce male gametophytes, which contain sperm nuclei

ovule

megasporangium, megaspore, & other protective tissue around them; increases protection of egg & developing zygote -> increase reproductive fitness

pollen grain

male gametophyte containing 2 sperm nuclei; has waterproof coat that allows for transfer by wind; key adaptation to land

gymnosperms

plants that have "naked" seeds that are enclosed in ovaries; often exposed on modified leaves that form cones (pines, spruces, firs, redwoods)

angiosperms

(flowering plants) have seeds enclosed in fruits, which are mature ovaries; account for 250,000 species or 90% of all plant species

anthophyta

phylum in which flowering plants are classified

flower

major reproductive adaptation of the angiosperm; consists of sepals, petals, stamen, and carpels

stamen

male reproductive structure, producing microspores in the anthers that develop into pollen grains

carpels

female reproductive structure, producing megaspores & their products - female gametophytes with eggs

fruits

mature ovaries of the plant; as seeds develop from ovules after fertilization, the wall of the ovary thickens; helps disperse seeds of angiosperms

monocots

(about 70k species) have 1 cotyledon in the seed, parallel leaf veination & flowering parts in multiples of 3 (orchids, lilies, grasses)

eudicots

(about 170k species) have 2 cotyledon in the seed, net leaf veination, & flowering parts usually in multiples of 4 or 5 (roses, peas, beans, oaks)

fungi

eukaryotes; multicellular heterotrophs; cell wall = chitin; bodies = hyphae; septa (cross walls); reproduced by spores; modes of nutrition = decomposers, parasites, mutualists

multicellular heterotrophs that obtain nutrients by absorption

fungi secrete hydrolytic enzymes, digest food outside their bodies, & absorb the small molecules

hyphae

filaments that compose bodies of fungi & are entwined to form a mass, the MYCELIUM

septa

a partition separating two chambers, such as that between the nostrils or the chambers of the heart

Zygomycota phylum

(zygote fungi) terrestrial & include fast-growing molds, parasites & commensal symbionts (bread mold)

Ascomycota phylum

(sac fungi) produce sexual spores in sac-like structures called ASCI (yeast)

Basidiomycota phylum

(club fungi) mushrooms & shelf fungi & are important decomposers of organic material

fungi play key roles in

nutrient cycling (decomposing of organic material such as cellulose & lignin), ecological interactions, human welfare

Mycorrhizal fungi

plant roots; delivers minerals to the plant while being supplied with organic nutrients (mutualism)

Lichens

symbiotic associations of photosynthetic microorganisms (algae) embedded in a network of fungal hyphae ( rock/soil fungi )

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