When blood enters the right ventricle from the right atrium it passes over the _____.
Normally the blood leaving the pulmonary trunk enters the _____.
left and right pulmonary arteries
Heart sounds (lub/dub) are caused by the valves _____.
The four valves in the heart are the _____, _____, _____, and the _____.
tricuspid, pulmonary semilunar, bicuspid, aortic semilunar
The tree root-like structures in the atria are the _____.
The aorta supplies blood to which of the two physical divisions of the circulatory system
the systemic circulatory system
Blood returning to the left atrium from the lungs is oxygen
These structures do not open or close the tricuspid and bicuspid valve - they help prevent them from prolapsing
The _____, located in the right ventricle, conducts impulses within the heart and may also prevent over distension of the ventricle wall.
There are three main components needed for circulation. They are the _____, _____, and _____.
heart, blood, and vessels
This mechanism for moving materials is only effective over short distances but does not require extra energy.
Diffusion is only effective in _____ (a type of vessel) because their walls are thin.
Blood leaves the heart via arteries, travels through _____, _____, _____ and eventually makes its way to veins which carry it back to the heart
arterioles, capillaries, venules
The outer layer of a vessel is called the _____.
. The average thickness of the tunica media in veins and arteries is ________ and _______ respectively
2 to 3 cells, 40 cells
The _____ supplies nutrients to and provides waste removal from fetal blood.
The muscular layer of a vessel wall (except capillaries) is the _____.
_____ moves blood significant distances quickly and needs a pressure gradient to do so.
Collateral circulation is not usually found in the _____ and _____.
_____ are the functional unit of the circulatory system for diffusion.
The circulatory system is a _____ system.
The functional importance of circulation is _____.
moving materials to and from cells
Cells are generally no more than 2 to 3 cell diameters away from a _____.
Blood is an example of ______.
Blood leaves heart chambers by way of ______ (a generic type of vessel).
. _____ are found in veins as well as at the beginning of the aorta and pulmonary trunk. They prevent backflow of blood.
The ______ is the opening in the vessels through which blood passes.
The tunica media is composed of _____.
smooth or involuntary muscle
The ______ provides a blood supply to the walls of larger vessels.
When we are standing, the _____ and the _____ helps return blood from our feet to our heart.
skeletal muscle pump, semilunar valves
Varicose veins are caused by a failure of the _____.
The tunica media of the aorta is about _____ muscle cells thick.
Blood leaving the right ventricle and going to the lungs is oxygen - _____.
Blood leaving the left ventricle and going to the cells of the body is oxygen - _____.
The exchange of _____ helps balance the bloods pH.
In the hepatic portal system, blood passes through _____ (number) capillary beds before returning to the heart.
_____ provides for a type of natural bypass. It is common in joints but not found in heart or brain.
Blood can go the wrong way up an arteriole because they are lacking _____.
The _____ (type of vessel) are in the placenta. They help with effective exchange between maternal and fetal blood.
The most oxygen rich blood in the fetus is in the _____.
The fetal bypass between the right and left atria is the _____.
At birth, the foramen ovale becomes the _____.
The foramen ovale is one of two bypasses of the _____.
pulmonary circulatory system
The fetal bypass between the pulmonary trunk and the aorta is the _____.
The ductus arteriosus is one of two bypasses of the _____.
pulmonary circulatory system
At birth, the ductus arteriosus becomes the _____.
The left and right umbilical arteries branch from the _____.
internal iliac arteries
The umbilical vein becomes the ______ after birth.
In fetal circulation the two umbilical arteries have _____ blood in them.
There are _____ pulmonary bypasses in the fetus
All fetal arteries have _____ blood
There is (are) _____ umbilical vein(s).
blood enters the right atrium from the _____, _____, and _____.
coronary sinus, superior vena cava, inferior vena cava
_____ are shaped like shirt pockets, and have three cusps.
In the lungs, blood picks up _____ and loses _____.
oxygen, carbon dioxide
Blood enters the left ventricle from the ______ by passing over the _____.
left atrium, bicuspid (mitral) valve
Blood enters the aorta from the _____.
There is/are _____ brachiocephalic artery/arteries.
. The _____ is the depression between the atria and the ventricles.
The first 5 branches of the human aorta in order are: _____, _____, _____, _____, and _____.
right coronary artery and left coronary artery, brachiocephalic artery, left common carotid artery, left subclavian artery
To Position Axis of Heart Anatomically:
rotate axis to left,
inferior end of axis tilted anteriorly,
inferior end of axis tilted to left,
Corners of the Heart
superior left: CC 2, 1 in. left of midsternum
superior right: CC3, 1 in. right of midsternum
inferior left (Apex): ICS 5, left, midclavicular
inferior right: CC 6, 1 in. right of midsternum