political advertisements purchased for a candidate's campaign
coverage of a candidate's campaign by the news media
advertising that attempts to counteract an anticipated attack from the opposition before the attack is launched
As opposed to the traditional "broadcasting," the appeal to a narrow, particular audience by channels such as ESPN, MTV, and C-SPAN, which focus on a narrow particular interest.
(Federal Communications Commission) regulates the television and radio industry, grants licenses to television and radio stations, and blocks monopolies.
Equal time rule
An FCC rule that if a broadcaster sells time to one candidate, it must sell equal time to other candidates.
A document offering an official comment or position.
a relatively restricted session between a press secretary or aide and the press
an unrestricted session between an elected official and the press
information provided to a journalist that will not be attributed to a named source
information provided to a journalist that will not be attributed to any source
information provided to a journalist that can be released and attributed by name to the source
New York Times Co. v. Sullivan (1964)
The supreme court concluded that "actual malice" must be proved to support a finding of libel against a public figure.
the president's use of his prestige and visibility to guide or enthuse the American public
C-SPAN and C-SPAN2
The networks that cover Congress
Determining which public-policy questions will be debated or considered.
Presenting information either positively or negatively in order to change the influence is has on an individual or group.
Bias or slant in the selection of which news to report and how the news is reported.
Forms of communication, such as newspapers and radio, that reach millions of people.