Dietary Fiber (chapter 4)

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fiber

--polysaccharide that can not be digested by human enzymes
--digested by bacteria
--adds bulk to feces
--comes from plants

dietary fiber

fiber found in food naturally

functional fiber

fiber added to food that must be associated with health benefits

total fiber

dietary+functional fiber

types of insoluble fiber

--cellulose (Celery, wheat)
--hemicellulose
--lignin (non carb, root veggies, wheat bran)

foods with insoluble fiber

--whole grains
--all plants
--wheat, rye, rice
--vegetables

physiological effects of insoluble fiber

--increases fecal bulk
--decreases intestinal transit time

types of soluble fiber

--pectins (apples, citris)
--gums (oatmeal)
--mucilages (beans)
--some hemicelluloses

foods with soluble fiber

--apples, bananas, oranges
--carrots
--barley, oats
--kidney beans

physiological effects of soluble fiber

--delays stomach emptying
--slows glucose absorption
--can lower blood cholesterol

foods generally high in fiber

whole grain products, fruit, veggies

beneficial effects of fiber

--promotes feeling of fullness
--prevents constipation, hemorrhoids
--prevents diverticulosis
--reduces blood cholesterol levels
--bile binds to it and is excreted
--slow digestion and absorption of carbs
--reduces risk of colon cancer

fiber DRI for 50 years <

males = 38g/day
females = 25g/day

fiber DRI for 50 years >

males = 30g/day
females = 21g/day

DV for fiber

25g/day
upper limit=40, lower limit=27

problems with too much dietary fiber

--gas
--feel full too fast
--bind and excrete minerals
--make stool hard (intestinal blocking)
-->60g/day

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