Ch 12 Cardiovascular: Blood LPN

Created by DrDavila Teacher

MED165 Night Human Anatomy & Physiology II Term3 2012 ECPI University

blood

fluid connective tissue of cardiovascular system; contains blood cells (red & white) and plasma

5 functions of blood

1. Transport substances (O2, nutrients, etc)
2. Restrict fluid loss (ie, blood)
3. Defend from pathogens
4. Regulate pH and ions
5. Stabilize body temperature

blood pH

7.35 - 7.45;
or 7.40 ± 0.05

plasma

liquid portion of blood;
made of water (92%), proteins, salts, nutrients, hormones, and waste

3 plasma proteins

fibrinogen, Albumin, and globulin;
made by the liver

albumin

most numerous plasma protein;
maintains osmotic pressure of blood;
"attracts" water to osmose back into blood stream from tissues

globulin

plasma protein; transport hydrophobic (water-frightened; ie, oily) molecules; immunoglobulins function in immunity and allergy

fibrinogen

plasma protein cleaved into fibrin by thrombin during blood coagulation;
last step of blood clotting

fibrin

blood-clotting protein formed when thrombin cleaves fibrinogen during coagulation (clotting) process

4 blood cells

Erythrocytes (RBCs)
Leukocytes (WBCs)
Hemocytoblasts (stem cells)
Thrombocytes (platelets, which are cell fragments not cells)

erythrocyte

red blood cell;
full of hemoglobin, which carries oxygen;
5,000,000 cells/mm3
99.9% of blood cells are RBCs;
formed in red bone marrow

hemoglobin

oxygen-carrying molecule found in erythrocytes;
made of heme (pigment) and globin (protein);
heme contains Iron (Fe2+), which turns red when bound to O2;
Hgb range = 12-18g/100cc

bilirubin

orange-yellow pigment in bile;
breakdown product of hemoglobin from dead erythrocytes;

jaundice

caused by excess bilirubin, which turns skin yellow-orange; treated with light exposure

erythropoiesis

process of making red blood cells

hemopoiesis

process of making any blood cell

leukocyte

white blood cell (WBC); defend body by:
1. protecting against pathogen invasion
2. removing damaged or abnormal cells
3. removing toxins and wastes
formed in red bone marrow or lymph tissue;
normal count: 5,000-9,000 cells/mm3

differential count

count of each type of white blood cell (leukocyte) in stained blood smear;
determines abnormailities or changes in WBC populations

neutrophil

most abundant WBC;
phagocyte;
population increases exponentially in acute infection;

eosinophil

phagocyte WBC;
engulfs antibodies linked to antigens;
populations increase in allergic conditions

basophil

WBC which releases histamine and heparin;
aka mast cells, when in tissue;
populations increase in chronic inflammation & infection

heparin

anticoagulating protein, which slows clotting;
released in response to injury

histamine

vasodilating protein, released after injury or allergy;
increases blood vessel permeability, which leads to fluid accumulating in tissue (edema), compressing nerves (pain), warmth, and redness;
attracts lymphocytes

monocyte

largest phagocytic WBC;
aka macrophage

lymphocyte

1 of 3 types of WBC (B-/T-/NK-lymphocyte)providing specific immunity (B & T) and some innate immunity (NK);
smallest WBCs;
25% of total WBC population

B-lymphocyte

differentiates in bone;
makes antibodies;
aka plasma cell

T-lymphocyte

differentiates in thymus;
performs cell-mediated immunity

4 inflammation signs

swelling
pain
redness
heat

thrombocyte

cell fragment involved in blood clotting;
aka platelet;
forms platelet plug to temporarily plug tears in blood vessel;
250,000-500,000 platelets/mm3

agglutination

blood clumping or bacteria clumping, due to antibodies sticking to each other

vitamin K

essential nutrient involved in blood clotting process;
vitamin "Klot"

thrombus

clot in intact vessels

embolus

abnormal particle (eg air bubble or clot) circulating in blood

thrombosis

process of developing clot in vessel

embolism

when embolus travels to, lodges into, and obstructs a vessel

hematologist

specialist treating diseases and disorders of blood and associated tissues

blood type

identifies which cell-surface protein(s) are on RBCs;
4 main classes: A, B, O, Rh-factor

antigen

any substance (toxin, cell-surface protein) that stimulates production of antibodies;
anything body may recognize as foreign

antibody

protein released by B-lymphocytes in response to antigen; antibody sticks to antigen;
antibody signals phagocytic eosinophils

Rh-factor

cell-surface protein that may be recognized as an antigen, similar to A and B

crossmatching and typing

test for compatibility of blood transfusions

type O negative

universal blood donor; aka O-
RBCs have none of the main antigens (A, B, or Rh), so recipient should not create antibodies and reject the blood

type AB positive

universal blood receiver; aka AB+
RBCs have all major antigens, thus recipient does not recognize any additional antigens in any type of blood (A+, A-, B+, B-, AB-, AB+, O-, or O+)

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set