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Circulatory System lecture selected slides

pericardium

a space called the pericardial cavity found between the parietal and visceral membranes, containing 5-30ml of pericardial fluid which lubricates the membranes allowing the heart to beat without friction

semilunar valves

pulmonary and aortic valves that regulate the flow of blood from the ventricles into the great arteries

pulmonary valve

valve that controls blood flow from the RV into the pulmonary arteries

aortic valve

valve that controls the opening for oxygen-rich blood from the LV into the aorta

triscupid valve

valve that regulates blood flow between RA and RV

mitral valve

valve that lets oxygen-rich blood from the LA into the LV

coronary circulation

vascular system which supplies oxygen-rich blood to the heart by the aorta branching off into two main coronary blood vessels

left coronary artery

coronary artery with two branches that supplies blood to the left side of the heart

left anterior descending artery

a branch of the left coronary artery that supplies the apex, interventricular septum, and anterior walls of ventricles

circumflex artery

a branch of the left coronary artery that supplies the LA and posterior wall of the LV

right coronary artery

coronary artery that supplies blood mainly to the right side of the heart

blood

a thick tissue which is 80% water and 20% solid, made of a variety of cells, each with a different job; made by cells inside bones' delivers O2 and nutrients to cells and removes CO2 and wate, keeps body at right temp, carries hormones to cells, sends antibodies to fight infection, contains clotting factors helping blood to clot and tissues to heal

4-6L

average amount of blood in an adult

8%

blood as a mean fraction of body weight

5-6L

volume of blood in an adult male

4-5L

volume of blood in an adult female

80-85ml/kg

volume of blood/body weight

38C

mean temperature of blood

7.35-7.45

pH of blood

4.5-5.5

viscosity (relative to water) of whole blood

2

viscosity (relative to water) of plasma

280-296mOsm/L

osmolarity of blood

0.9%

mean salinity of blood

37-48%

hematocrit of female blood

45-52%

hematocrit of male blood

12-16g/dl

haemoglobin in female blood

13-18g/dl

haemoglobin in male blood

4.2-5.4million/uL

female mean RBC count

4.6-6.2million/uL

male mean RBC count

120 days

life span of a RBC

130,000-360,000/uL

platelet count in blood

5,000-10,000/uL

total WBC count of blood

albumins (60%), globulins (36%), fibrinogen (4%)

3 major proteins of the blood plasma

erythrocytes (RBCs), platelets, leukocytes (WBCs)

3 formed elements of blood

granulocytes, agranulocytes

2 types of leukocytes (WBCs)

neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils

3 types of granulocytes

lymphocytes, monocytes

2 types of agranulocytes

erythrocytes

a disc-shaped cell with a thick rim and thin sunken center, 7.5um in diameter, 2um thick at rim, with a red pigment due to presence of hemoglobin (carries O2 and CO2); picks up O2 from lungs to deliver to tissues elsewhere; picks up CO2 from tissues to unload in lungs

neutrophils

a type of granulocyte which makes up 60-70% of WBCs; 4,150 cells/uL; 9-12um in diameter; nucleus has 3-5 lobes in S or C shaped array with fine reddish/violet granules in cytoplasm; carries out phagocytosis of bacteria and release of antimicrobial chemicals; number increases in bacterial infection

platelets

fragments of megakaryocyte cytoplasm, also called thrombocytes, 2-4um in diameter which secrete procoagulants/clotting factors which promote blood clotting which stops the blood from flowing out of the body when a vein/artery is broken;130,000-400,000 platelets/uL

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