Beginning in the eleventh century, military campaigns by various Iberian Christian states to recapture territory taken by Muslims. In 1492 the last Muslim ruler was defeated, and Spain and Portugal emerged as united kingdoms.
Hermandades or "brotherhoods" were popular groups in the town. They were given authority to act as both local police forces and as a judicial panel.
Treaty of Tordisillas
A treaty dividing the New World possessions between Portugal and Spain. This treaty, signed in 1494 was a product of the Catholic Church.
A grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right to use Native Americans as laborers on it
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.
"White Man's Burden"
The belief that Europeans had a moral responsibility to civilize primitive peoples. In order to do so, white men had to introduce all natives to God and force them to accept him.
Applied Darwin's theory of natural selection and "survival of the fittest" to human society -- the poor are poor because they are not as fit to survive. Used as an argument against social reforms to help the poor.
The revolt of Indian soldiers in 1857 against certain practices that violated religious customs in India against the Brisith; also known as the Sepoy Mutiny.
In 1900, mostly poor people that hated foreigners and trained in shadow boxing created a ring of terror in Peking against foreigners and Chinese Christian converts; they fought against foreign influence.
Born in 1853, played a major political and economic role in colonial South Africa. He was a financier, statesman, and empire builder with a philosophy of mystical imperialism.
Open Door Policy
a policy, proposed by the United States in 1899, under which all nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China
war between Great Britain and China, began as a conflict over the opium trade, ended with the Chinese treaty to the British- the opening of 5 chinese ports to foreign merchants, and the grant of other commercial and diplomatic privileges
Conference that German chancellor Otto von Bismarck called to set rules for the partition of Africa. It led to the creation of the Congo Free State under King Leopold II of Belgium.
Guns, Germs and Steel
Jared Diamond's theory that all of the world's equality can be reduced to a question of Geography and Guns, Germs and Steel.
Japan had attacked the Russian Pacific fleet over Russia's refusal to withdraw its troops from Mancharia after the Boxer Rebellion (1904-1905) War fought mainly in Korea. Japan victorious, the U.S. mediated the end of the war. Negotiating the treaty in the U.S. increased U.S. prestige. Roosevelt received a Nobel Peace Prize for the mediation.