Structural- Functional theory

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-places emphasis on stability and integration. 1, Society is an integrated whole. 2. All elements of a society contribute to its well being. 3. A society tends to remain in equilibrium, to maintain stability. 4. A society rests on the consensus of its members.

Structural- Functional theory

-places emphasis on stability and integration.
1, Society is an integrated whole.
2. All elements of a society contribute to its well being.
3. A society tends to remain in equilibrium, to maintain stability.
4. A society rests on the consensus of its members.

Functionalists

View society as a system. A system is a complex of interdependent parts, each tending to fulfill requirements that contribute to the maintenance of the whole.

Conflict theory

Conflict theorists focus on the interests that divide people within society, leading to domination and exploitation within human relationships. They see society as a stage where struggles for power and privilege occur and where elites seek maintain their advantage by oppressing the disadvantaged.

Conflict theory places emphasis on change and conflict

1. A society experiences inconsistency and conflict at every moment; conflict is present everywhere.
2. A society experiences change at every moment; social change is present everywhere.
3. Elements within a society contribute to its change.
4. Society rests on the constraint of some of its members by others.

Sociology

The study of how people behave in groups

Peter Bergers' Dimensions of Sociological Conciousness which consists of 3 motifs

1. debunking-exposing false claims or myths
2. relativizing-not only people but ideas are relative.
3. unrespectability- Everything is worthy of study.

Symbolic Interaction

how people use symbols when interacting(sing language)

verstehen

to understand

common sense

what most people in a particular group in a particular time and place believe to be true or the way it is.

Scientific method

a series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions

independent variables

Variables that can be changed or manipulated.

dependent variables

The outcome factor -- the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable

operational definition

A statement that describes how to measure a particular variable or how to define a particular term.

theoretical definitions

Often scientific or philosophical in nature

cause-effect

The reason something happens and the result of it happening.

spurious relationship

a false association between two variables that is actually due to the effect of some third variable

designs

how the participants are organised

control group

the group that does not receive the experimental treatment.

experimental group

A subject or group of subjects in an experiment that is exposed to the factor or condition being tested.

sampling

items selected at random from a population and used to test hypotheses about the population

accidental sample

Drawn by an unsystematic procedure, typically by stopping and interviewing people in a public place.

sampling frame

a list of individuals from whom the sample is drawn

population

a group of organisms of the same species populating a given area

survey designs

Describe trends in a large population of individuals.
Procedures in quantitative research in which you administer a survey or questionnaire to a small group of people (called a sample) in order to identify trends in attitudes, opinions, behaviors, or characteristics of a large group of people (called a population).

Hawthorne Effect

a change in a subject's behavior caused simply by the awareness of being studied

Hypothesis

a message expressing an opinion based on incomplete evidence

Validity

the quality of being logically valid

Reliability

the trait of being dependable or reliable

Qualitative Research

research that relies on what is seen in field or naturalistic settings more than on statistical data

Quantitative Research

research that collects and reports data primarily in numerical form

Correlation

the measure of a relationship between two variables or sets of data

Secondary Analysis

The analysis of data that have been collected by other researchers

Content Analysis

the systematic coding and objective recording of data, guided by some rationale

Case Study

a detailed analysis of a person or group from a social or psychological or medical point of view

ASA Code of Ethics

Sets forth the principles and ethical standards that underlie sociologists' professional responsibilities and conduct. Consists of an Introduction, a Preamble, five General Principles, and specific Ethical Standards

Culture

Culture is shared and learned. Culture is a set of shared symbols and their definitions.

Norms

Ideal or expected patterns for behavior.

Mores

Social Norms. Slang

Folkways

The proper, accepted ways of engaging in behavior.

Values

The norms of a society are ultimately an expression of its values; socially shared ideas about what is good, right, and desirable.

Sanctions

something that forces obedience with a law or rule

Cultural Relativism

the practice of judging a culture by its own standards

Ethnocentrism

belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group

Horticultural Society

a society based on cultivating plants by the use of hand tools

Pastoral Society

a society based on the pasturing of animals

Agrarian Society

A society (country) that makes most of its money through farming.

Industrial Society

a society that depends on mechanization to produce its goods and services

5 Important Functions Of Language

1. Overcomes the limitations of time and space.
2. Permits people to go beyond their senses.
3. Permits people to think and reason.
4. Enables people to accumulate and store knowledge.
5. People transmit culture by means of a language.

Auguste Comte

1798-1856. (French Social Philosopher)
-first to use word, sociology.
-divided sociology into "social statics" and "social dynamics"

Herbert Spencer

1820-1903. (English Social Philosopher and Biologist)
-almost discovered theory of evolution before Darwin.
-"survival of the fittest"

Emile Durkheim

1858-1917. (French Sociologist)
-dealt with the problem of social order, which is governed by symbols.
-Methods. Utilized the scientific method.

Karl Marx

1818-1883. (German Philosopher)
-society is held together by power, not by consensus.
-power came from property.
-placed emphasis on economic factors.

Max Weber

1864-1920. (German Sociologist)
-Ideal type
-Verstehen

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