Structural- Functional theory
-places emphasis on stability and integration.
1, Society is an integrated whole.
2. All elements of a society contribute to its well being.
3. A society tends to remain in equilibrium, to maintain stability.
4. A society rests on the consensus of its members.
View society as a system. A system is a complex of interdependent parts, each tending to fulfill requirements that contribute to the maintenance of the whole.
Conflict theorists focus on the interests that divide people within society, leading to domination and exploitation within human relationships. They see society as a stage where struggles for power and privilege occur and where elites seek maintain their advantage by oppressing the disadvantaged.
Conflict theory places emphasis on change and conflict
1. A society experiences inconsistency and conflict at every moment; conflict is present everywhere.
2. A society experiences change at every moment; social change is present everywhere.
3. Elements within a society contribute to its change.
4. Society rests on the constraint of some of its members by others.
Peter Bergers' Dimensions of Sociological Conciousness which consists of 3 motifs
1. debunking-exposing false claims or myths
2. relativizing-not only people but ideas are relative.
3. unrespectability- Everything is worthy of study.
what most people in a particular group in a particular time and place believe to be true or the way it is.
a series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions
The outcome factor -- the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
A statement that describes how to measure a particular variable or how to define a particular term.
a false association between two variables that is actually due to the effect of some third variable
A subject or group of subjects in an experiment that is exposed to the factor or condition being tested.
items selected at random from a population and used to test hypotheses about the population
Drawn by an unsystematic procedure, typically by stopping and interviewing people in a public place.
Describe trends in a large population of individuals.
Procedures in quantitative research in which you administer a survey or questionnaire to a small group of people (called a sample) in order to identify trends in attitudes, opinions, behaviors, or characteristics of a large group of people (called a population).
research that relies on what is seen in field or naturalistic settings more than on statistical data
a detailed analysis of a person or group from a social or psychological or medical point of view
ASA Code of Ethics
Sets forth the principles and ethical standards that underlie sociologists' professional responsibilities and conduct. Consists of an Introduction, a Preamble, five General Principles, and specific Ethical Standards
The norms of a society are ultimately an expression of its values; socially shared ideas about what is good, right, and desirable.
5 Important Functions Of Language
1. Overcomes the limitations of time and space.
2. Permits people to go beyond their senses.
3. Permits people to think and reason.
4. Enables people to accumulate and store knowledge.
5. People transmit culture by means of a language.
1798-1856. (French Social Philosopher)
-first to use word, sociology.
-divided sociology into "social statics" and "social dynamics"
1820-1903. (English Social Philosopher and Biologist)
-almost discovered theory of evolution before Darwin.
-"survival of the fittest"
1858-1917. (French Sociologist)
-dealt with the problem of social order, which is governed by symbols.
-Methods. Utilized the scientific method.
1818-1883. (German Philosopher)
-society is held together by power, not by consensus.
-power came from property.
-placed emphasis on economic factors.