burger quiz 4 ch.4

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The idea of a working model is from

cognitive theory.

When does an infant normally begin to express anger?

6 months

The first emotional expressions to emerge at birth are

crying and contentment.

________ parenting involves close physical contact with a child, while _______ parenting involves engaging the child more intellectually.

Proximal; distal

According to Freud, the primary source of gratification during the second year of life is the:

Anus

Pretending and using the words "I," "me," "mine," and "myself" are evidence that the child has developed:

self-recognition

What is Erikson's first crisis of life?

trust versus mistrust

Separation anxiety:

is normal at age 1 but not after age 3.
is an infant's distress when a caregiver leaves.
intensifies by age 2 and then usually subsides by age 3.

An infant's realization that he or she is a distinct individual whose actions are separate from those of other people is:

self-awareness

The theory that emphasizes the need for responsive maternal care and connects biosocial with psychosocial development is:

psychoanalytic

A temperamental adjustment that allows smooth infant-caregiver interaction is called:

goodness of fit.

A mutually coordinated, rapid, smooth interaction between a caregiver and an infant is called:

synchrony.

When a toddler begins to walk and talk, the social bond with the caregiver changes from __________ to ____________.

synchrony; attachment

Albert crawls after his father when his father leaves the room. In doing so, Albert is exhibiting:

proximity-seeking behavior (p. 141)

Although cultural differences exist, most infants worldwide develop special attachments to their caregivers. This discovery is attributed to:

Mary Ainsworth

Which attachment pattern involves an infant who both resists and seeks contact when reunited with his or her caregiver?

insecure-resistant/ambivalent

Which of the following seems to predict insecure attachment?

highly stressed parents

According to the text, _________ encourage infants to explore, whereas _______ tend to be more cautious

fathers; mothers

According to the text, nonrelative child care in a home is referred to as:

family day care.

According to the text, psychosocial development is determined by

genes.
maturation.
culture.

The case study of Jacob is an example of the importance of paying attention to deficits in a child's _____________ growth

psychosocial
(p. 151)

High-quality day care during infancy has the following characteristic:

low turnover rate (p. 148, Table 4.6)

A determining factor in a father's level of involvement with his children is

his relationship with their mother.

One of the most influential factors that determine a child's type of attachment is the

responsiveness of the parents (p. 144, Table 4.5)

Which of the following is one of the key aspects of the Strange Situation?

exploration of toys
(p. 143)

Which attachment pattern involves an infant who both resists and seeks contact when reunited with his or her caregiver?

insecure-resistant/ambivalent

When an infant is comfortable and confident in the presence of his or her caregivers, the infant is said to have:

a secure attachment.

Albert crawls after his father when his father leaves the room. In doing so, Albert is exhibiting:

proximity-seeking behavior

The experimental practice in which adults stare at their baby and remain expressionless is called

the still-face technique

Research indicates that toddlers with proximal mothers were more ______ but less _______.

compliant; self-aware

When temperament is described as being "constitutionally based," this means that traits

originate with one's genes

A key concept of an ethnotheory is that

a culture's underlying values and practices are usually not apparent to the people of that culture

What is Erikson's second crisis of life?

autonomy versus shame and doubt

__________ would trace a person's excessive eating, drinking, or talking to how that person's mother handled his or her urge to suck during infancy

Freud
(pp. 129-130)

The theory that emphasizes the need for responsive maternal care and connects biosocial with psychosocial development is:

psychoanalytic.(p. 129)

The relationship between brain maturation and the ability to express each emotion and sensation in an appropriate way is called:

synesthesia (p. 127)

An infant's realization that he or she is a distinct individual whose actions are separate from those of other people is:

self-awareness

An infant's distress when his or her caregiver leaves is:

separation anxiety

When an infant is fearful of strangers, he or she is exhibiting:

stranger wariness

An infant's smile upon seeing a person's face normally emerges

at about 6 weeks of age (p. 124)

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