Biology - Chapter 10A - The Bacteria

34 terms by ldryer Plus

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For Biology I students at Christian Life School

Microbiologist

Someone who studies microscopic organisms

Pathogenic

Disease causing

Decomposer organism

An organism that produces enzymes capable of breaking down proteins, starches, lipids, and almost every other known organic substance.

Prokaryotic

Organism that does not have a true nucleus or membrane-bound organelles.

Peptidoglycans

Sugar & protein molecules found in the cell walls of some organisms.

Thermoacidophiles

Organisms that live in highly acidic soils and hot springs.

Methanogens

Organisms that live in anaerobic environments such as swamps, sewage, and intestine of some animals.

Halophiles

Organisms that live in areas with a high salt concentration.

What are similarities between the kingdoms Archaebacteria & Eubacteria?

They are both prokaryotic.
They can both cause bad diseases.

What are differences between the kingdoms Archaebacteria & Eubacteria?

They have different lipids in their cell membrane.
Archaebacteria have no peptidoglycans in their cell walls, Eubacteria have peptidoglycans in their cell walls.
Archaebacteria can live in pretty extreme conditions, Eubacteria live in nonextreme conditions.
Archaebacteria contain introns, Eubacteria do not have introns.

Coccus

Spherical shaped bacteria

Bacillus

Rod shaped bacteria

Spirillum

Spiral or corkscrew shaped bacteria

Be able to label the following parts of a typical bacteria:

Flagella
Mesosome
Capsule
Cell wall
Nuclear area

Gram's stain

A dye that stain's bacteria purple (gram-positive) or pink (gram-negative).

Capsule

Outside sticky covering that protects the cell from drying out and prevents certain substances from entering.

Nuclear area

Where the DNA chromosome appears.

Plasmid

A section of circular DNA separate from the chromosome.

Plasma (cell) membrane

Controls what goes into and out of the cell.

Cell wall

Supports and protects the cell; located outside the cell membrane.

Mesosome

Indentations on the cell membrane that help in metabolic processes.

How do bacteria usually move about?

Using a flagella

Six commercial uses for bacteria

Forming cheeses and other products
Making vinegar
Retting flax
Making sauerkraut and other products
Tanning leather
Forming silage

How do bacteria usually reproduce? Define.

Simple binary fission; the nucleus replicates and the cell pinches in to two cells.

Heterotrophic

Obtain their energy by digesting organic substances.

Parasitic

Feeding off of a living host.

Saprophytic

Feeding off of dead organic matter.

Environmental conditions necessary for bacteria to grow and divide

Moisture
Temperature
Proper pH
Nutrition

Endospore

Hard outer covering that forms within the plasma membrance to survive periods of unfavorable conditions.

Pasteurization

Process of raising the temperature of a liquid to a certain temperature and then cooling it quickly to destroy bacteria.

Conjugation

Occurs when the DNA of one bacteria passes through the conjugation tube (pilus) to another bacteria.

Pilus

The conjugation tube; allows for passage of DNA or other factors.

Transformation

When living bacterial cells pick up another bacteria's DNA that is free in the environment.

Transduction

When genetic material is transferred from one bacteria to another by a virus called a bacteriophage that attaches to the bacteria.

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