Chapter 19: Drifting Toward Disunion

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1854-1861

Harriet Beecher Stowe

Wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin, a book about a slave who is treated badly, in 1852. The book persuaded more people, particularly Northerners, to become anti-slavery.

Hinton R. Helper

Wrote The Impending Crisis, a book about slavery. He said the non-slave holding whites were the ones who suffered the most from slavery. He was captured and killed by Southerners

John Brown

An abolitionist who attempted to lead a slave revolt by capturing Armories in southern territory and giving weapons to slaves, was hung in Harpers Ferry after capturing an Armory

Charles Sumner

gave a speech in may 1856 called " the Crime Against Kansas" militant opponent of slavery, beat with a cane by Preston Brooks after the speech, collapsed unconscious and couldn't return to senate for 4 years, symbol throughout the north.

John C. Freemont

led groups into southwestern Mexico to claim California as an independent nation

Dred Scott

American slave who sued his master for keeping him enslaved in a territory where slavery was banned under the missouri Compromise

Roger Taney

chief justice of the supreme court who wrote an opinion in the 1857 Dred Scott case that declared the Missouri compromise unconstitutional

John C. Beckenridge

Buchanan's vice president, nominated for president by breakaway southern Democrats in 1860.

John Bell

Tennessee politician and Plantation owner, nominated for president in 1860 by the United States Constitutional Union Party (Whig's) but lost to Lincoln and the Republicans.

Abraham Lincoln

16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth (1809-1865)

Jefferson Davis

an American statesman and politician who served as President of the Confederate States of America for its entire history from 1861 to 1865

John Crittendon

Attempted to recreate the Missouri Compromise as a Constitutional amendment in 1860, sadly he is unable to broker a compromise between north and south on the eve of war

self-determination

the ability of a government to determine their own course of their own free will

southern nationalism

The idea that the south would develop into its own country like, its how they became the confederates

Uncle Tom's Cabin

Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1853 that highly influenced england's view on the American Deep South and slavery. a novel promoting abolition. intensified sectional conflict.

The Impending Crisis of the South

Trouble-brewing book written in 1857 by Hinton R. Helper, attempting to prove that slavery hurt non-slaveholding whites the most

New England Immigrant Aid Society

1854 was created to pay antislave settlers to go into Kansas, so when the state voted on whether or not to allow slavery the vote would be on the antislave side.

Pottawatomie Creek Massacre

John Brown let a part of six in Kansas that killed 5 pro-slavery men. This helped make the Kansas border war a national issue.

Bleeding Kansas

A sequence of violent events involving abolitionists and pro-Slavery elements that took place in Kansas-Nebraska Territory. The dispute further strained the relations of the North and South, making civil war imminent.

American or Know-Nothing Party

opposed immigration and Catholic influence. They answered questions from outsiders about the party by saying "I know nothing".

Dred Scott Decision

A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man. The U.S, Supreme Court decided he couldn't sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.

Panic of 1857

Economic downturn caused by overspeculation of western lands, railroads, gold in California, grain. Mostly affected northerners, who called for higher tariffs and free homesteads

Lincoln-Douglas Debates

1858 Senate Debate, Lincoln forced Douglas to debate issue of slavery, Douglas supported pop-sovereignty, Lincoln asserted that slavery should not spread to territories, Lincoln emerged as strong Republican candidate

Freeport Doctrine

Idea authored by Stephen Douglas that claimed slavery could only exist when popular sovereignty said so

Harpers Ferry Raid

John Brown plans to start a slave uprising, so he steals weapons at Harpers Ferry and is stopped by U.S. Marines where he is captured

Constitutional Union Party

Political party that recognized "no political principles other than the constitution of the country, the Union of the states, and the enforcement of the laws."

Bleecher's Bibles

was the name given to the breech loading Sharps rifles that were supplied to the anti-slavery immigrants in Kansas.

Crittenden Compromise

1860 - attempt to prevent Civil War by Senator Crittenden - offered a Constitutional amendment recognizing slavery in the territories south of the 36º30' line, noninterference by Congress with existing slavery, and compensation to the owners of fugitive slaves - defeated by Republicans

Bleeding Sumner

Senator Sumner was beaten after criticizing slavery & a Southern Senator

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