Muscles

33 terms by nslarkin 

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Muscles, Origin, Insertion, Action

orbicularis oculi m.

Action - close eye

orbicularis oris m.

Action - close and purse lips

masseter m.

Origin - zygomatic arch
Insertion - angle and ramus of mandible
Action - elevate mandible and close jaw

temporalis m.

Action - elevate mandible and close jaw

sternocleidomastoid m.

clavicular head
Origin - sternal end of clavicle
sternal head
Origin - manubrium of sternum

Both
Insertion - mastoid process of temporal bone
Action - both sides acting together flex neck; one side acting alone - opposite rotation of head and lateral flexion of neck.

erector spinae m.

Action - both sides acting together extend vertebral column; one side acting alone - laterally flexes vertebral column

trapezius m.

3 divisions origins -
upper - occipital bone
middle - ligamentum nuchae
lower - spinous processes of thoracic vertebrae

insertion - clavicle (lateral end), and scapula (acromion and spine)

Action -
upper - extends neck; elevates scapulae
middle - retracts or adducts scapulae
lower - depresses scapulae

deltoid m.

3 divisions - anterior, middle, and posterior
Origin - clavicle lateral end, scapula at acromion and spine
Insertion - deltoid tuberosity of humerus
Actions
anterior - flexes humerus
middle - abducts humerus
posterior - extends and hyperextends humerus, laterally rotates humerus

supraspinatus m.

Origin - supraspinatous fossa of scapula
Insertion - greater tubercle of humerus
Action - abducts arm
*with other rotator cuff muslces, stabilizes shoulder joint
SITS muscle

infraspinatus m.

Origin - infraspinous fossa of scapula
Insertion - greater tubercle of humerus
Action - laterally rotate humerus
*with other rotator cuff muscles, stabilizes shoulder joint
SITS muscle

teres minor m.

Origin - lateral border of scapula
Insertion - greater tubercle of humerus
Action - laterally rotate humerus
*with other rotator cuff muscles, stabilizes shoulder joint
SISTS muscle

subscapularis m.

Origin - subscapular fossa of scapula
Insertion - lesser tubercle of humerus
Action - medially rotates humerus
*with other rotator cuff muscles, stabilizes shoulder joint
SITS muscle

teres major m.

Origin - inferior angle of scapula
Insertion - intertubercular sulcus of humerus
Action - extends and medially rotates humerus

latissimus dorsi m.

Origin - spinous processes of lower thoracic and lumbar vertebrae; false ribs; thoracolumbar fascia
Insertion - intertubercular sulcus of humerus
Action - extends, adducts, medially rotates humerus

biceps brachi m

Origins
long head - superior border of glenoid fossa
short head - coracoid process
Insertion - radial tuberosity
Action - flexion of shoulder and elbow, supination of forearm

tricepts brachii m.

Insertion - olecranon process of ulna
Action - elbow extension and adduction of humerus

piriformis m.

Origin - sacrum
Insertion - greater trochanter of femur
Action - lateral rotation of thigh; hip abduction

tensor fascae latae m.

Origin - anterior superior iliac spine and iliac crest
Insertion - iliotibial tract
Action - laterally supports knee by tensing iliotibial tract (plus abduction at hip)

gracilis m.

Origin - inferior pubic ramus
Insertion - medial surface of tibia inferior to medial condyle (i.e. proximal medial tibia)
Action - adducts thigh at hip, flexes at knee

psoas major m.

Action - flex thigh at hip; flex vertebral column (as in old style sit-up)

vastus lateralis m.

Origin - greater trochanter and linea aspera of femur
Insertion - tibial tuberosity via quadriceps tendon, patella, and patellar ligament
Action - extends leg at knee
part of quadriceps femoris group

rectus femoris m.

Origin - anterior inferior iliac spine
Insertion - tibial tuberosity via quadriceps tendon, patella, and patellar ligament
Action - extends leg at knee; also flexes hip (brings closer to torso)
part of quadriceps femoris group

vastus medialis m.

Origin - linea aspera of femur
Insertion - tibial tuberosity via quadriceps tendon, patella, and patellar ligament
Action - extends leg at knee
part of quadriceps femoris group

vastus intermedius m.

Origin - anterolateral surface of femur
Insertion - tibial tuberosity via quadriceps tendon, patella, and patellar ligament
Action - extends leg at knee
part of quadriceps femoris group

biceps femors m.

Origins
long head - ischial tuberosity
short head - linea aspera
Insertion - head of fibula, lateral condyle of tibia
Actions
long head - knee flexion and hip extension
short head - knee flexion (does not cross hp so cannot act at that joint)
part of hamstring group

semimembranosus m.

Origin - ischial tuberosity
Insertion - medial condyle of tibia (posterior surface)
Action - knee flexion and hip extension
part of hamstring group

semitendinosus m.

Origin - ischial tuberosity
Insertion - proximal, medial surface of tibia
Action - knee flexion and hip extension
part of hamstring group

gastrocnemius m.

Origin - just above femoral condyles
Insertion - calcaneus (via calcaneal tendon)
Action - plantar flexion and knee flexion

ligamentum nuchae

a large, elastic ligament that connects spinous processes of cervical vertebra and inserts on occipital bone

adduction

i.e. retraction of scapulae

abduction

i.e.protraction of scapulae

lateral rotation

i.e. external rotation

medial rotation

i.e. internal rotation

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