Chapter 6 & 3

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Work Motivation. List, Define and Give/recognize examples of the three elements of work motivation.

• Work Motivation- psychological forces that determine the direction of a persons behavior in an organization, a persons level of effort,and a persons level of persistence.

• Direction of Behavior- the behavior employees choose to perform from the many potential behaviors they could perform. Employees can be motivated functionally or dysfunctionally.

• Level of Effort- how hard does a person work to perform a chosen behavior? An organization must motivate employees to work hard at these behaviors.

• Level of Persistence- when presented with an obstacle, how hard does a person keep trying to perform the behavior successfully?

Define Intrinsically and Extrinsically motivated work behavior and give/recognize examples of rewards for each.

•Intrinsically Motivated- behavior is performed for its own sake. Motivation comes from the work itself
•Extrinsically Motivated- Behavior is performed to get some reward (pay, praise, or status) or to avoid punishment

•Employees can be one or the other or both.

Expectancy Theory. Discuss/Explain theory.

•A theory about work motivation that focuses on how employees make choices among alternative behaviors and levels of effort.

•Must answer 2 questions:

•Does an individual believe that his or her inputs will result in a given level of performance?

•If employees do not feel like they are capable of performingat an acceptable level even w/ maximum effort, motivation will be zero.

•Does an individual beleive that performing at this level will lead to getting the outcomes they desire?

•Employees will be motivated if the outcome is what they want.


•According to the Expectancy Theory, only when the answer to both of these questions is yes will the employee be motivated. It is the managers job to make sure these apply.

Valence. Include definitions of positive and negative valence and magnitude of valence. Impact of valence on performance.

•Valence- In the expectancy theory, the desirability of an outcome to an individual.
•Positive valence means employees prefer having the outcome than not having it (raise)

•Negative Valence- employee prefers not to have the outcome (fired)

•Magnitude is how desirable or undesirable an outcome is.

•Motivation problems can occur if highly valent outcomes are not available

Instrumentality. Define. Magnitude imp. Impact on performance.

•Instrumentality- In expectancy theory, a perception about the extent to which performance of one or more behaviors will lead to getting of a particular outcome.

•+1 means the employee perceives the performance will definitely result in a wanted outcome.

•-1 means that the employee perceives the performance will not result in a wanted outcome

Expectancy. Define. Impact on performance. Manager's role when expectancy is low.

•Expectancy- in expectancy theory, an employees perception about the extent to which his or her efforts will result in a certain level of job performance.

•0 means they expect that there is no chance their effort will result in a certain level of performance.

•1 means they are absolutely certain that their effort will result in a certain level of performance.

Equity Theory. Define equity theory and outcome/input ratio. Impact of both overpayment and underpayment inequity.

•Equity Theory- A theory about work motivation that focuses on employees perception of the fairness of their work outcomes and inputs.

•Outcome/Input Ratio- In equity theory, the relationship between what and employee gets form a job and what the employee contributes to the job.

•Overpayment inequity- inequity that exists when a person perceives that his or her outcome/input ratio is greater than the ratio of a referent.

•Underpayment inequity- inequity that exists when a person perceives that his or her out/come input ratio is less than the ratio of a referent.

Discuss 5 ways employees can restore equity.

•Employees can change their outcomes or inputs
•Employees can change their referents outcomes or inputs
•Employees can change their perceptions of outputs or inputs (either their own or their referents.
•Employees can change the referent if the current one does not provide appropriate comparison.
•Employees can leave the job or force the referent to leave.

Discuss/Explain Organizational Justice Theory (Include definitions and examples of Procedural, Interpersonal and Informational Justice) and discuss impact on employee motivation, attitudes and behaviors.

•Organizational Justice- an employees perception of the overall fairness in an organization. This is an important determinate of employee motivation, attitude, and behavior. Looks at a bunch of theories rather than one.
•Are the procedures used to asses inputs and outputs perceived to be fair?
•Are employees treated with dignity and respect?
•Do managers provide explanations of decisions and procedures use?

•Procedural Justice- concerned with the perceived fairness of the procedures used to make decisions about the distribution of outcomes. Not concerned w/ actual distribution. Employees will be more motivated to perform at a high level if they see that things are fairly distributed.

•Interpersonal Justice- concerned with the perceived fairness of the treatment of employees by managers.

•Informational Justice- employee perception of the extent to which managers explain their decisions and the reasons for arriving at those decisions.

Determinants of Job Satisfaction

•Job Satisfaction- the collection of feelings and beliefs that people have about their current jobs

•Personality- enduring ways a person has of feeling, thinking, and behaving.

•Values- they reflect employees convictions about the outcomes that work should lead to and how one should behave at work.

•Work Situation- the task a person performs, the people they interact with, the surroundings in which they work, and the way an organization treats their employees.

•Social Influence- the influence that individuals or groups have on a persons attitudes and behaviors.

Theories: (a) Facet (general overview of facet model), (b) Discrepancy Model (c)Steady State (equilibrium )

A. Facet Model- focuses primarily on work situation factors by breaking a job into its component elements (facets). An employees overall satisfaction is determined by summing up their satisfaction with each fact of the job.

B. Discrepancy Model- based on the idea that to determine how satisfied they are with their jobs, employees compare their jobs with some ideal job.

C. Steady State- suggests that each employee has a typical level of job satisfaction called steady state or equilibrium level. Different situational factors and events at work may move an employee temporarily from this steady state but eventually they will return.

Relationship of job satisfaction with: Job performance, Absenteeism, Turnover, Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB), and Employee Well-Being.

•Job Performance- job satisfaction is not strongly related to job performance. There is a very weak positive connection.
•Absenteeism- job satisfaction has a weak negative relationship with absenteeism.
•Turnover- high job satisfaction leads to low turnover.

Describe and recognize examples of OCB.

•Organizational Citizenship Behavior- behavior that is not required but is necessary for organizational survival and effectiveness

•Ex. Helping other team members, protecting organization, making constructive suggestions, spreading goodwill in community

Benefits of Turnover to Organization.

•Depends on who is leaving. Poor performers leaving and high performers staying is good.
•Painless and natural way to reduce the workforce if people leave of their own free will.

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