What factors affect nutritional needs for different individuals?
Age, sex, weight, physical activity, and body type.
What is the USDA food pyramid?
The USDA food pyramid is a guideline for foods in food groups that individuals should consume daily.
What are macronutrients?
Macronutrients are the three basic food groups:proteins, carbohydrates, and fats.
What are proteins?
Proteins are chains of amino acids that are used by every cell of the body to make other usable proteins, including muscle tissue, blood, enzymes, keratin that is present in the skin, nails, and hair, collage, and antibodies for the immune system.
Nonessential amino acids
Eleven amino acids that can be synthetized by the body and do not have to be in our diet.
Essential amino acids
Acids that must be in our daily diet because they can't be synthesized by the human body.
Combinations of two incomplete proteins that provide all the essential amino acids and make a complete protein.
What are carbohydrates?
Carbohydrates break down the basic chemical sugars that supply energy for the body.
What role does glucose play in the body?
Glucose provides the body with energy, stored in the muscles, and is broken down to provide the energy needed for muscles to work.
The substance that provides energy to cell, converts oxygen to carbon dioxide.
Carbohydrate-lipid complexes that are good water binders.
Water binding substance between the fibers of the dermis.
What are simple sugars?
Sucrose, fructose, and lactose.
What are starches?
Complex carbohydrates present in vegetables and grains, cerals, breads, and other flour products, potatoes, rice, legumes, beans, and pasta.
What is fiber?
Fiber is made up of cellulose, which is not digested by the humans and is important in helping push wastes out of the colon.
What are simple carbohydrates?
Sweets, syrups, honey, fruits, candy, and many vegetables.
Which foods are high in fiber?
Grains, brans (oat and wheat) whole grain breads, beans, apples, and vegetables such as carrots and corn.
What is hypoglycemia?
When blood glucose or blood sugar drops to low without adequate carbohydrates. Anxiety, fatigue, and food cravings.
Where is insulin produced.
In the pancreas, brings nutrients and glucose into cells and stores fat.
What are fats?
Used to produce the materials in the sebaceous glands that lubricate the skin.
What percentage of water composes body weight?
50 to 70%
What formula determines how much water you should ingest a day?
Take your body weight and divide by 2. Divide that number by 8.
What is a water soluble vitamin?
Water soluble vitamins do not stay in the body very long.
What is vitamin D's main function?
Enables the body to properly absorb and use calcium, the element needed for proper bone development and maintenance.
What are rickets?
A vitamin D deficiency.
How does the body absorb vitamin D?
The skin synthesizes vitamin D from cholestrol when exposed to sunlight.
What are fat soluble vitamins?
The body stores them in the liver and in adipose (fat) tissue.
How many calories are macronutrients?
A gram of fat has 9, a gram of carbohydrate or protein has 4.
What are LDL's?
Trans fatty acids in the blood, composed largely of cholestrol.
What are HDL's?
Good lipoproteins with a high protein content.