System in which the temporal rule extends his own powers to ecclesiastical and theological matters. Such emperors appointed bishops and the Eastern Patriarch, directed the development of liturgical practices, and even aided the recruitment of monks.
Compiled under Emperor Justinian I, the codex was the collection and systematization of all Roman law as it had developed from his predecessors put together for the purpose of legal uniformity throughout the empire. It is the basis for canon law as well as the civil law throughout Europe.
Council of Hiereia
A local (non-ecumenical) council convened by Constantine V to condemn the use of icons
Dulia and Latria
Two types of adoration whose distinction was drawn at the seventh Council of Nicaea. An icon may be venerated throughout acts of respect and honor, called (1), but God alone is worth of absolute adoration, known in Greek as (2).
Latin meaning "and the Son," this was first added at the Third Council of Toledo to the Nicene-Constatinopoltian Creed to clarify that the Holy Spirit proceeded from both the Father and the Son. Later, the Patriarch of Constantinople and the bishops of the East refused the addition, thus contributing to the Great Schism.
Most famous example of Byzantine architecture, it was built under Justinian I and is considered one of the most perfect buildings in the world.
A flat, two-dimensional picture of Christ, the Virgin Mary, or one of the saints which is used as an aid for Christian acts of piety. The general artistic style of icons reflects a certain mystical beauty of Christ the Savior and the saints. When rightly understood, the icon, by virtue of what is represented, is seen as an invitation to prayer
Thoughts or deeds of an iconoclast. Refers to periods in history when a large number of iconoclasts were present.
From the Greek work eikonoklastes, meaning "image breaker," iconoclasts saw icons as occasions of idolatry and sought to destroy them and purify the practice of the Christian religion. They were condemned at the seconds council of Nicaea in 787.
Greek for "lover of icons," this term refers to those who defend and promote the proper use of icons in Christian worship.
Heresy claiming that there is only one nature in Christ and the His human nature is "incorporated" into the Divine Nature.
Lands around Rome, Italy, won by Pepin on behalf and given to the papacy, making the pope a sovereign as well as spiritual leader. This was ruled by the Pope from 754 to 1870.
Age of St. Bernard
Refers to the middle of the twelfth century during which St. Bernard of Clairvaux exhibited enormous influence through his counseling of rules, bishops, and popes.
So called "White Monks," after the color of their habits, this order was founded by the Cluniac monk St. Robert of Molesme in 1098. They adopted the Benedictine rule and placed a special emphasis on austerities, farming, simplicity, and strictness in daily life.
City in east-central France which gave birth to monastic reform in 910. The first abbey began with twelve monks committed to renewing the rule of St. Benedict.
Decree given by Pope St. Gregory VII asserting that the pope possesses specific powers given by God that rested on him alone. These powers included the power to convene and ratify a council, to propound doctrine, and to appoint, transfer, and remove bishops from office. He also claimed that the papacy had the power to depose temporal rules and subjects of any temporal rule had the right to appeal to the papacy in order to bring charges against their sovereign.
System that came to organize the politics, economy, and social life of Medieval Europe after the split of the Carolingian empire. Based on the relationship between wealthy, landowning lords and the common villagers, farm-workers, it was a relatively simple arrangement in which the commoners would pay the landowner in labor or services in return for the lord's military protection against foreign or domestic foes.
The appointment of bishops and abbots by secular rules, often in exchange for temporal protection
From the Italian nepote, "nephew," and Latin nepos, "grandson," the appointment of family members to important positions of authority.
The majority of the people within feudalism. They barely enjoyed any freedom since they were completely tied to the land and lord they were serving.
The selling of ecclesiastical offices, pardons, or emoluments by either secular or spiritual leaders.
Treaty of Verdun
Signed in 843, the treaty divided the Carolingian empire into three sections, which led to the eventual destruction of Charlemagne's empire.
Vicar of Christ
Title used by Pope Innocent III rather than the earlier title, Vicar of St. Peter. "Vicar of Christ" emphasized Innocent III's understanding of the pope as a representative of Christ himself.
Latin meaning "good men," these groups of thirty or more highly respected and independent men, both laymen and priests, were summoned during the Inquisition to give verdict on cases and decide punishment.
From the Latin word crux (cross), it refers to wars of a religious character, or specifically to a series of eight defnesive military expeditions between 1096 and 1270 undertaken by Christians to liberate the Holy Land and stop the expansion of Islam.
A remission before God of temporal punishment due to sins, the guilt of which has already been forgiven through the sacrament of Penance.
Special judges appointed by the pope during the Inquisition who examined and judged the doctrinal opinions and moral conduct of suspicious individuals.
Arising out of the necessity of defending the Holy Places in Palestine as well as the pilgrims who traveled there, these orders combined bother military and religious life, emphasizing dedication, discipline, and monastic organization.
The Christian reconquering of part of the Iberian Peninsula (modern day Spain) following 700 years of Muslim and Jewish control
Term of Grace
The procedure for Inquisition began with this month long period which allowed for the inhabitants of a heresy-ridden district to appear before the inquisitor, confess their sins, and perform penance.
Pope Bl. Urban II
This pope started the crusades, his appeal for the crusades were very liked with the lower classes.
St. Bernard of Clairvaux
this man's spellbinding preaching inspired thousands to join the Second Crusade
This military order was founded in 1190, modeled after the Hospitalers and headquartered in Jerusalem, and moved to Prussia in 1229 to help aid the German expansion
This military order was founded in 1131, they grew out of an already existing work of charity consisting of taking care of sick pilgrims, these people usually dressed in a black cloak adorned with a white cloak
This military order, in 1118, was founded by a group of 9 French knights, specifically to protect pilgrims traveling to Jerusalem; St. Bernard of Clairvaux wrote their code based off Cistercian Rule, they wore white monastic garments distinguishing them on the battlefield, off the battlefield they lived quiet lives of pious monks
Started by Pope Gregory IX, this was a way for the Church to detect and purge any heresy that they found in order to protect the Catholic faith.
This heresy believed that two gods governed the universe: a spiritual good god, and a physical evil god; therefore, they believed anything of the temporal world was evil and dangerous.
earthly representative of God or Christ; person acting as parish priest in place of a real person
Peninsula connecting Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, series of walls protecting the city
Describe the geography of the location for Constantinople.
His ambition was to resurrect the glory of the imperial Rome in the Eastern empire
What was Emperor Justinian I's great ambition?
Because of conflicts with the papacy, the government kicked Pope Silverius out of the country and Vigilius became the pope.
How did monophysitism cause problems for Justinian I?
It is an invitation to prayer, not to be worshipped.
How is an icon not a violation of the first commandment?
Pope, monks, most bishops condemned the edict.
What were the results of Emperor Leo III's forbiddance of icons?
They didn't invite all the bishops from the West and, it has to be convened by the Pope.
Why did the Council of Hiereia not meet the conditinos for an ecumenical council?
Jesus came down as a human, so that we could have a figure
What was St. John of Damascus' basic argument in support of icons?
Emperor was killed, skull used as trophy, killer drank wine out of skull
What happened to Emperor Nicephonus, and how did this help to inaugurate the Second Iconoclasm?
St. Boniface got Pope Zachary's permission to recognize the Carolingian Dynasty as rightful rulers.
What role did the papacy and St. Boniface play in raising the Carolingian line to that of king of the Franks and deposing of the Merovingians?
The pope asked for their protection in exchange for papal support.
What was the significance of the relationship between the papacy and the Frankish king?
Pepin gave them to the pope after marching into Italy and conquering it.
How did the Papal States come into existance?
Son of Pepin, grandson of Charles Mantel, he was a great advocate of Christianity; reformed priests, made new dioceses, raised money for worship, and he helped save the pope
Who was Charlemagne, and how did he help the Church?
Christmas Mass after being released in 800 at St. Peter's Basilica
When was Charlemagne crowned emperor by Pope St. Leo the III?
Emphasizing importance of education and artistic excellence, made parishes have a school, better instruction of clergy, enthusiasm for Catholicism renewed.
Define the Carolingian Renaissance.
He covered a variety of topics, like Latin, Math, and theological texts.
How does Alcuin symbolize the unity of western Europe in general and of Charlemagne's empire in particular?
Celibacy, Saturday fast, use of unleavened bread in Mass, beardless priests, eating meat with blood, omitting alleluia during Lent
What were some practices that Cerularius disliked in the lain Church?
Saracen (Muslims) from South, Vikings from North, Slavs and Magyars from East
What three groups coming from which directions threatened western Europe during the ninth century?
They were the repository of Carolingian society's wealth.
Why were monasteries often the targets of the Viking invasions?
ideal of a universal church inside a political framework
What did the monastic reform at Cluny emphasize?
Strict adherence to the Benedictian Rule, and one abbot
What were two things that separated Cluniac monks from other monks?
Privigium - Cluny answered directly to the pope; strayed them away from nepotism and simony
What did Pope Benedict VIII grant to Cluny in 1016? How did this help Cluny not to become involved in the problems of feudalism?
Abbot Hugh the Great, Cardinal Humbart, Fredrich of Lorraine,Otto of Lagery, Blessed Urban II
Name at least four important Cluniac monks who rose to positions of importance.
Invoking the memory of Charlemagne's authority and wedding the Church to the Ottonian dynasty.
Otto I's (the Great) oronoation at Aachen as Holy Roman emperor served what two purposes?
Lay investiture, assertion of royal power over proprietary churches, appropriation of ecclesiastical funds for the royal coffers
List three ways in which the Ottonian line exercised influence over the Church.
He was a counselor to King William I and was Archbishop of Cantebury
How did Lanfranc negotiate his responsibilities to the Church and his relationship to the state.
The reforming popes realized they needed to regain control to reduce the chance of corruption.
Why did the Church want to regain control over the ecclesiastical appointments?
Henry appointed the bishop of Milan despite a papal decree saying he couldn't, pope asked him to resend the appointment, he refused to, the pope excommunicated him.
What act by Henry IV initiated his struggle with Pope St. Gregory VII?
Censure from a bishop stating a person is cut off from communion with the church because he is in persistent mortal sin; 2/3 of Germany was under the authority of the bishop
What does excommunication mean? Why would Henry IV not ignore the act of excommunication?
Left spiritual investiture to Church alone, temporal investiture to civil authorities, emperor renounced all claims to invest churches with ring and crosier, permitted free election of bishops, simony condemned, could veto the temporal position that came with the bishop role
What was the Concordat of Worms?
For Henry II to assert royal power with purpose of lay investiture and to get control of Church's revenue
What were King Henry II's aims with the Constitutions of Clarendon?
St. Thomas a Becket was martyred.
How did the contest between St. Thomas a Becket and King Henry II end?
To maintain a balance of power throughout Europe with himself as arbitrator
What was Pope Innocent III's goal during his papacy?
wanted to stop them from assuming independent power; those fallen from the state of grace
How did Pope Innocent III and his immediate successors view kings? For what kinds of behavior were kings penalized?
Benedictine Rule with emphasis on austerities, farming, and simple life style
Which rule do the Cistercians follow and what do they emphasize along with it?
Implied poverty and simplicity; black
What did the color white signify for the Cistercian habit, and what color did most religious orders wear?
Scriptures and Fathers of the Church; divine life communicated to the world in the Person of Jesus Christ
What were the two areas of focus for St. Bernard's studies, and what was the central theme of his spirituality?
St. Bruno; lived as a hermit
Who founded the Carthusians, and how did he live with the earliest Carthusians?
What new Muslim people appeared on the scene in the Middle East as a new threat to Byzantium?
1095, council in Clemont; to get help from Westerns to aid the Eastern Christians
When and where did Pope Bl. Urban II preach the first crusade and why?
God would reward those who fought with indulgences, plus the reductions of taxes, dissolving of debts, protection of crusaders' families
What were the temporal and spiritual motivations for participation in the Crusades?
The Muslims were not fully controlling the area
How was the timing of the First Crusade particularly fortuitous with regard to the Seljuk Turks and other Muslims?
What Seljuk Turkish leader was an excellent military commander and essentially forced the Europeans into a retreat?
Children either starved to death, killed by disease, or captured and sold into slavery
What was the result of the "Children's Crusade"?
Jews and Muslims
What minority groups with Europe sometimes became victims of violence and murder during the crusades?
After being attacked during a pilgrimage, Francis asked to speak with the Sultan. After a chat, the two became friends. Francis and his order of monks were allowed safe access to the Holy Land, and he became protector of Christian shrines in the Holy Land.
Describe the relationship between St. Francis of Assisi and Sultan Malik-al-Kamil.
Christians were more aware of their unity, contact with Christians helped influence intellectual life of Europe
What were some of the effects of the crusades?
3 rank division' aristocratic soldiers, clergy, and lay brothers (helped soldiers)
How were the Knights Templar organized?
1130; to take care of the poor
When were the Knights Hospitalers founded and what was their vocation?
Prussia Estonia, Lithuania, and Russia
The Teutonic Knights did not keep Jerusalem and hospitals for very long before turning their attention to which lands?
allowed to confess, swear on Gospels, told of punishments, close confinement, visits of already tried men, confinement to an inquisition prison
What were the five methods of extraction a confession from an accused person?