A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
Relationship between 2 states in which the stronger state guarantees to protect the weaker state from external aggression in return for full or partial control of its domestic and foreign affairs.
Conquered by the French; became a protectorate.
Conquered by the British in Southeast Asia to protect their interests in India.
Only area in Southeast Asia that was not taken over by European colonies because they adopted some western cultural practices, political ideals, and education. Used as a neutral zone between Britain and France.
Conquered by the U.S. after the Spanish-American War. Prevented Japanese from gaining territory and used as a stepping stone to China.
Ship canal dug across the isthmus of Suez in Egypt, designed by Ferdinand de Lesseps. It opened to shipping in 1869 and shortened the sea voyage between Europe and Asia. Its strategic importance led to the British conquest of Egypt in 1882. "Lifeline to India"
Ottoman army officer who seized control of Egypt and made a separate Egyptian State. Modernized Egypt's military, set up a public education system and set up small industries.
Charles Gordon & Great Britain
General who wanted to restore Egyptian authority over the Sudan from Muslim Muhammad Ahmad. His army was wiped out at Khartoum in 1885 by Ahmad.
Explorer; arrived in Africa in 1841. For 30 years he explored uncharted regions (mostly the interior of the continent); disappeared for awhile.
Journalist from the New York Herald; hired to find David Livingstone when he disappeared. Found him and when he died he carried on his work. Explored the Congo River Basin and told the Belgians to settle there.
King of Belgium who began imperialistic trade inside of Africa which resulted in the Scramble for Africa. Controlled the Congo.
Berlin Conference of 1884
A meeting from 1884-1885 at which representatives of European nations agreed on rules colonization of Africa. No African representative was present.
British colonial financier and statesman in South Africa made a fortune in gold and diamond mining; helped colonize the territory (Rhodesia)now known as Zimbabwe. Wanted to build a railroad streching from Egypt to South Africa.
Dutch and other European settlers in Cape Colony before 19th-century British occupation; later called Afrikaners.
The native people of South Africa who resisted colonialism from the Boers and British.
The Boer War
A conflict, lasting from 1899 to 1902, in which the Boers and the British fought for control of territory in South Africa.
Wrote the poem "The White Man's Burden."
White Man's Burden
Idea that many European countries had a duty to spread their religion and culture to those less civilized.
Union of South Africa
British combined the Boer republics with their old cape colony. The new state would be a self-governing nation within the British empire.
Indian soldier hired by British East India Company as a 'security force' in India.
The revolt of Indian soldiers in 1857 against certain practices that violated religious customs.
Queen of England and Empress of India; official ruler of India during British rule.
Governor of a country or province who rules as the representative of his or her king or sovereign.
Indian National Congress
A movement and political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in government. Led after 1920 by Mohandas K. Gandhi.
This was a leader of the Indian independence movement in mid-20th century known for his nonviolent protests.
India's Cultural Revival
Lead to a search for modern literary expression and a new national identity.
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere; 1823.
Ship canal cut across the isthmus of Panama by United States Army engineers; it opened in 1915. It greatly shortened the sea voyage between the east and west coasts of North America.
Peninsulares were people living in the New World's Spanish colonies, but were Spanish, actually born in Spain and not the New World. They stood at the top of the social hierarchy, and were viewed as being superior to creoles, Spaniards born in the New World.
descendents of Spanish-born BUT born in Latin America; resented inferior social, political, economic status
Spanish American War
War fought between the US and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines. It lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba's independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.